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Military Intelligence in Arabo-Byzantine Naval Warfare
By Vassilios Christides
To empolemo Byzantino – Byzantium at War, edited by Nicolas Oikonomides (Athens: Institute for Byzantine Studies, 1997)
Introduction: During the long Arab-Byzantine struggle for supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea from the seventh to the fourteenth century an unexplored factor, or paramount importance, was their military naval intelligence. An attempt will be made in the present paper to present some facets of this complex topic about which little has been written.