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Hanji Timeline

Hanji Timeline


Hapkido

Hapkido ( UK: / ˌ h æ p k iː ˈ d oʊ / HAP -kee- DOH , [4] US: / h ɑː p ˈ k iː d oʊ / hahp- KEE -doh, [5] also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do from Korean hapgido [hap̚.ki.do] ) is a hybrid Korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, grappling, throwing techniques, kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. It also teaches the use of traditional weapons, including knife, sword, rope, nunchaku (ssang juhl bong), cane (ji pang ee), short stick (dan bong), and middle-length staff (joong bong), gun (analogous to the Japanese jō), and bō (Japanese), which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined.

Hapkido
Also known asHapkido, Hap Ki Do, Hapki-Do
FocusJoint Manipulation, Throwing, Falling, Striking, Kicking, Blocking
Country of originKorea
CreatorNo single creator collaborative effort of Choi Yong-Sool's earliest students. [1] [2] [3]
ParenthoodJapanese martial arts
Ancestor artsDaitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, Judo, Taekkyeon, Tang Soo Do, Chinese martial arts
Descendant artsSin Moo Hapkido,
MuSool HapKiDo,
World JunTong Moosul Hapkido,
Huek Choo Kwan Hapkido,
Hapmudo,
Hankido,
Hwa Rang Do,
Kuk Sul Won,
Combat Hapkido,
Hapki yusul

Hapkido employs both long-range and close-range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges, and pressure point strikes, joint locks, and throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, redirection of force, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage over their opponents through footwork and body positioning to incorporate the use of leverage, avoiding the use of brute strength against brute strength.

The art was adapted from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as it was taught by Choi Yong-Sool (최용술) when he returned to Korea after World War II after having lived in Japan for 30 years. This system was later combined by Choi's disciples with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and contemporary arts such as Taekkyon, and Tang Soo Do as well as various throwing techniques and ground fighting from Japanese Judo. [6]


2017&mdashHanji: The Legacy and Future of Korean Papermaking

Until recently, Korean paper (known as hanji) was rarely studied, especially outside of its home country. This talk will review points along the long history of Korean papermaking, nearly two millennia long, and the culture that it shaped. The botanical perspective begins with the paper mulberry tree, which makes durable and versatile paper. An historical overview will trace paper's route from China to Korea and how it developed as Buddhism spread through East Asia, as well as its role in the USA. Images and videos, accompanied by samples of hanji and paper artwork&mdashincluding paper made from plants harvested at Albion&mdashwill illuminate the technical details of this ancient but still valuable craft.

Aimee Lee is an artist, papermaker, writer, and the leading hanji researcher and practitioner in North America. (BA, Oberlin College MFA, Columbia College Chicago). Her Fulbright research on Korean paper led to her award-winning book, Hanji Unfurled (The Legacy Press) and the first-ever American hanji studio, located in Cleveland, Ohio. She teaches, lectures, exhibits, and is collected internationally.

2016&mdashFrom Match to Flame: The Evolution of Ray Bradbury&rsquos Fahrenheit 451

For this year&rsquos event, in partnership with the NEA Big Read, Albion College welcomes Dr. Jonathan R. Eller, a Chancellor&rsquos Professor of English, director of the Center for Ray Bradbury Studies, and senior textual editor of the Institute for American Thought at Indiana University&rsquos School of Liberal Arts (IUPUI).

Fahrenheit 451 seems as if it has always been a part of American culture, a cautionary tale about a future world where firemen don&rsquot put out fires&mdashthey start them. Ray Bradbury drafted the final version during a nine-day blaze of creativity in the summer of 1953, but his nightmare world of book burning originated in a seven-year arc of drafts that spilled over into some of his most famous early stories. The unlikely evolution of Fahrenheit 451, its even more remarkable transformation into an international literary classic, and its contemporary relevance amidst the technological wonders of the twenty-first century form the core of this lecture.

Dr. Eller first met Ray Bradbury in the late 1980s, eventually developing a working relationship that lasted until Mr. Bradbury&rsquos passing in 2012. Most recently, Professor Eller authored Becoming Ray Bradbury (2011) and Ray Bradbury Unbound (2014), biographical studies of Bradbury&rsquos early and middle career (the final volume of this trilogy is in progress). He also edits The Collected Stories of Ray Bradbury, a multivolume series that recovers the original versions of Bradbury&rsquos earliest tales. In 2013 he prefaced and prepared a new historical section for Simon & Schuster&rsquos 60th anniversary edition of Fahrenheit 451. Three of Professor Eller&rsquos books on Bradbury have been LOCUS award finalists for best nonfiction title in the science fiction and fantasy field.


Hanji

Hanji (Han: 干尢乞 漢字 , tr. Hanji), often erroneously known as the Han alphabet, is a syllabic script, which alongside rōmaji and Hanzi are used to transcribe written Han. Formulated by a group of scholars during the mid-18th century, its characters are generally derived from Chinese radicals, though several have been modified and are only found in Hanji. Initially utilized as a ruby script, it eventually replaced Baybayin, and was used to transcribe morphemes that lacked or had an obsolete Hanzi character counterpart while Hanzi continued to be used to transcribe nouns or other root words.

Each syllable found in the Han language can be expressed with a character, but those containing a coda are expressed with trigraphs (a syllable expressed through three separate characters). Hanji is typically written or typed with spaces, allowing the readers to easily distinguish between words. Standardized Hanji characters and Han orthography is regulated by the Commission on the Han language. Contemporary Han is written solely in Hanji.


Contents

When the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines in 1941, they found an American Jeep and promptly sent it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities ordered Toyota to produce a similar vehicle but to alter the appearance. The resulting Model AK prototype led to the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha (四式小型 貨物 車 type 4 compact cargo-truck). [10] The Imperial Army was already using the Kurogane Type 95 four wheel drive reconnaissance car starting in 1936.

Later in 1941, the Japanese government instructed Toyota to produce a light truck for Japan's military. In 1942, Toyota developed the AK10 prototype by reverse-engineering a Bantam GP. The half-ton truck features an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator, and a folding windshield.

The AK10 is powered by the 2,259 cc (2.3 L), 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan coupled to a three-speed manual transmission and a two-speed transfer gearbox. Unlike the U.S. Jeep, the AK10 had limited use and photographs of it in the battlefield are rare.

In June 1954, responding to claims of trademark violation by the Willys Company that produced the original Jeep, then Director of Technology Hanji Umehara renamed the vehicle "Land Cruiser."

The postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ is completely different from the AK10 and inherits no mechanical parts from it. However, a lot of lessons learned while developing the AK10 were applied when developing the BJ. [11]

BJ and FJ (1951) Edit

History Edit

In 1950, the Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the then-new Willys specifications and tasked Toyota to manufacture them. The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that was developed in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful courtesy of its Type B 3.4-litre six-cylinder OHV Four-stroke petrol engine which generated a power output of 63 kW (84 hp 85 PS) at 3,600 rpm and 215 N⋅m (159 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1,600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. However, and unlike the Jeep, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case. In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that height. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car. [12]

For the first two years, manufacture was exclusively to order and in small volumes. [13] In 1953, however, regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at the Toyota Honsya Plant (rolling chassis assembly). The body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Company). [12] The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced in the following variants:

The next year, the name "Land Cruiser" was coined by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor — Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'", he recalls. [12] The name had already been used on the Studebaker Land Cruiser which was produced from 1934 to 1954. The 92 kW (123 hp 125 PS), 3.9 L Type F petrol engine was added to the Land Cruiser range for the first time, originally only in the fire-engine chassis. The models were renamed:

  • BJ-T (Touring),
  • BJ-R (Radio),
  • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
  • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

J20, J30 (1955) Edit

History Edit

  • 1955 – The Second generation of the Land Cruiser called the 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have a more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride courtesy of longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 99 kW (135 PS 133 hp) 3.9 L six-cylinder Type F petrol engine, but adopted the previous generation's three-speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range transfer case, but had synchronism on the third and fourth gears. [citation needed]
  • 1957 – A 4-door Station Wagon was added called the FJ35V which was based on a 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase. The Land Cruiser first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as the FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies. [14] The Land Cruiser was the first Japanese vehicle to be regularly exported to the country. [15] A small number of Land Cruisers were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Scheme by contractor Theiss Constructions. [16]
  • 1958 – FJ25 production commenced in Brazil this being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan. These were sold as the "Toyota Bandeirante" from January 1962 when the Toyota petrol engine was replaced with a Mercedes-Benz diesel engine. The word "bandeirante" means "flag carrier" in Portuguese. The FJ25 models were built until August 1968 in Brazil. [17] Production numbers were fairly low in 1965, the production total was 961 vehicles. [18]

Bandeirante timeline Edit

  • 1959:
    • FJ25 – Short open (topless) bushdrive car – motor Toyota F (May 1959 to 1960/61) – new in 1959 (also referred to as FJ251)
    • FJ25L – Short soft top bushdrive car – motor Toyota F (1960/1961 to 1960/1961) – new in 1960/1961 (also referred to as FJ251L)
    • FJ151L – Short soft top bushdrive car – motor Toyota 2F (1960/1961 to December 1961) – replaces the FJ25/FJ251 and the FJ25L/FJ251L (there are few mentions in literature and no preserved ones known it could be even doubted if it's ever been actually built)
    • TB25L – Short soft top bushdrive car – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (January 1962 to – 1966?) – replaces the FJ151L (or FJ25L/FJ251L?)
    • TB25L – Short hard top bushdrive car – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (January 1962 to – 1966?) – new in 1962
    • TB41L – Long hard top bushdrive car – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (September 1962 to July 1968) – new in 1962
    • TB51L – Short pickup with native bed – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (September 1962 to January 1966)
    • TB51L3 – Short 3-door double cabin pickup with native bed and steel bed cover – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (1965 to ?) – new in 1965 possibly only one unit was built
    • OJ32L – Short soft top bushdrive car – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (1966? – to August 1968) – replaces the soft top TB25L
    • OJ31L – Short hard top bushdrive car – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (1966? – to August 1968) – replaces the hard top TB25L
    • TB81L – Short pickup with native bed – motor Mercedes-Benz OM-324 (February 1966 to August 1968) – replaces the TB51L

    J40 (1960) Edit

    • 3.2 L 2B diesel I4
    • 3.4 L 3B I4
    • 3.6 L H I6 [20]
    • 4.0 L 2H I6

    History Edit

    • 1960 – The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40 Series. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 93 kW (126 PS 125 hp), 3.9 L F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three-speed main gearbox.
    • 1965 – Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles. The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota vehicle in the United States.
    • 1968 – The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide. Brazilian J40 production, as the Bandeirante, commenced in September. The Bandeirante has a Mercedes-Benz-built diesel engine generating a power output of 58 kW (79 PS 78 hp).
    • 1972 – The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold.
    • 1973 – The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold. The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export based on a long wheelbase with a six-cylinder H engine [citation needed] .
    • 1974 – A four-cylinder 3.0 L B diesel engine was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact freight-car category as compared to the 3.9 L petrol version.

    Note: the new B diesel engine was different from the B petrol engine used in the original BJ.

    • 1975 – The 3.9 L petrol engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2 L 2F unit and the FJ55 received front disc brakes. The 3.6 L H diesel engine was optional in some markets in the HJ45. [20]
    • 1976 – FJ40 Land Cruiser (United States-version) received front disc brakes like the FJ55. The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
    • 1977 – The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the vehicle tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
    • 1978 – The first BJ/FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40/55).
    • 1979 – FJ40 (United States-version) was updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights. Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40 for the first time The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2 L 2B unit but only in Japanese markets.
    • 1980 – The H diesel engine (HJ45) was replaced by the 4.0 L 2H engine (now with chassis code HJ47). [20]
    • 1981 – the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4 L 3B engine, and the LWB BJ45 with 3B engine was added to the range.
    • 1983 – the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid-1982 to mid-1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be around 300. The 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid-1981 to mid-1982).
    • 1984 – the North American market was limited to Canada with the BJ42, which had a 5-speed (overdrive) transmission that was widely sought. The originally cost around CA$14,000 .

    Gallery Edit

    1980 Toyota Land Cruiser hardtop (FJ40)

    1963 Toyota Land Cruiser Station Wagon (FJ45)

    Toyota Land Cruiser pickup (FJ45)

    J70 (1984) Edit

    • 2.4 L 2L I4 (diesel)
    • 2.4 L 2L-Tturbo I4
    • 2.5 L VM HR588 turbo I5 (Italy only) [22]
    • 3.0 L 1KZ-T turbo I4
    • 3.4 L 13B-T turbo I4
    • 3.4 L PZ I5
    • 4.0 L 2H I6
    • 4.2 L 1HD-FTE turbo I6
    • 4.2 L 1HZ I6
    • 4.5 L 1VD-FTV turbo V8
    • 2,310 mm (90.9 in)
    • 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
    • 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
    • 2,980 mm (117.3 in)
    • 3,180 mm (125.2 in)

    History Edit

    • 1984 – J70 was introduced as a soft-top, hard-top, Fibre-reinforced plastic top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats). The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0 L 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4 L four-stroke petrol engine, which actually were the 2L and 2L-T (turbocharged) 2.4 L diesel engines commonly found in the Toyota Hilux. The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (J90). An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission.
    • 1990 – New-generation of diesel engines were introduced for the Land Cruiser including a 3.4 L five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated engine (1PZ), and a 4.2 L six-cylinderSOHC naturally aspirated engine (designated the 1 HZ).
    • 1993 to 1996 – the KZ 3.0 L turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ in the 70 series in European markets where this model was known as the KZJ70.
    • 1993 – An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
    • 1999 – Toyota updated the 70 series in several ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pickup.
    • 2002 — HDJ79 was introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2 L six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel EFI engine.
    • 2007 – Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was introduced in some countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications include the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) and an updated front-end on all models.
    • 2012 – the 79 Double Cab pickup was introduced in the South African markets (with the 4.2 L Diesel or 4.0 L Petrol engines) and in the Australian market (with 4.5 L V8 Diesel engine).
    • 2014 to 2015 – the 30th Anniversary Series 70 sold in Japan as a 4-door wagon or 4-door pickup with the 1GR-FE V6 petrol engine and 5-speed manual transmission. [23]

    The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production of the Land Cruiser in Venezuela ended in 2008.

    The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier', 2-door cab-chassis and 4-door cab-chassis.

    The 70 series is also still being marketed in the Middle East as a 2-door and 4-door version as an SUV, and a 2-door and 4-door version as a pickup, and it is very popular there along with the regular Land Cruiser.

    Gallery Edit

    BJ74 Mid wheelbase FRP-top 3.4D-T LX

    J50 (1967) Edit

    The Land Cruiser 55 was produced from 1967 to 1980. Toyota refers to the FJ55G and FJ55V as the first "real" station wagon in the Land Cruiser series, thus marking the beginning of the station wagon bodystyle. It was the first Land Cruiser to have fully enclosed box frame members. Of all the Land Cruiser wagons sold in the U.S., including the FJ45, it is the only one to not have hatch and tailgate in the rear, but rather a tailgate only with an electrically operated window that can be retracted into the tailgate. [24]

    History Edit

    • 1967 – Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a "pig" or an "iron pig". The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase (at 2,700 mm (106 in)) and was mainly designed to be sold in North America and Australia. Fire engine versions were also available, using the regular front clip but with open bodywork and no doors. [25]
    • 1975 – January 1975 saw the F series engine being replaced by the 2F engine. [20] Unusual for Toyota, the model designation (e.g. FJ55) did not change, except in Japan, where it was changed to FJ56.
    • July 1980 – Production ends.

    J60 (1980) Edit

    • 4-speed H41F or H42Fmanual (United States only)
    • 4-speed A440Fautomatic
    • 5-speed H55F manual

    The Land Cruiser 60 series was produced from 1980 through 1990, for most markets but the Cumana Plant in Venezuela continued production until 1992 for their local market. It is a front engine, four-door wagon which can seat five to eight [ citation needed ] people. Like all of the Land Cruiser generations, it is well known in the off-road world for its off-road abilities. [ citation needed ] The 60 series was available in the following exterior colours: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue and in the following metallic exterior colours: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver.

    History Edit

    • 1980 — The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of creature comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while the six-cylinder 4.0 L 2H and the four-cylinder 3.4 L 3Bdiesel engines were added to the lineage. Less equipped versions were also available in many markets. In Europe this model was sold as the Land Cruiser Wagon Van. [26]
    • 1981 – Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 series was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana.
    • 1984 – This was the final year for the 40 series.
    • 1984 – Alongside the 60 series, the 70 series was introduced.
    • 1985 – The Direct-injection12H-Tturbodiesel engine was introduced.
    • 1988 – The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0 L 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.

    Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift

    Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60 pre-facelift, rear view)

    Toyota Land Cruiser GX (FJ62 post-facelift, rear view)

    J80 (1990) Edit

    • 4-speed manual
    • 4-speed A440Fautomatic
    • 4-speed A442F automatic
    • 4-speed A343F automatic
    • 5-speed H150F manual
    • 5-speed H151F manual

    The Land Cruiser 80 series was unveiled in October 1989 at the Tokyo Motor Show and launched in early 1990. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a tailgate and hatch in 1994. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela due to its roundness. The J80 was initially offered in two versions in these countries: the fully loaded VX and an entry level model that included a vinyl interior with optional air conditioning. In 1996, the entry model was upgraded to a medium equipped model named Autana, including cloth upholstery, standard air conditioning and power driver seat. The name is a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau and cave system along the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.

    History Edit

    • 1990 – The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa, and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
    • 1990 – A new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines available in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or a 1HD-Tdirect injection turbo diesel.
    • 1991 – By mid-1991 the 3F-E engine was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F engine.
    • 1993 – An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer. Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) were available as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become available in the US models. In May 1993, Toyota began using R134 refrigerant in the air conditioning system. Serial numbers lower than JT3DJ81xxxxx38947 use the R12 refrigerant.
    • 1994 – A limited edition called the Land Cruiser Blue Marlin (FZJ80) was introduced to the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol engines with double-overhead cams, an automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW (215 PS 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm. The car is blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the car. Some of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disc brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16-inch alloy wheels, limited-slip differential, anti-lock brakes (ABS), power steering, CD or cassette players, fender flares, and a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 were made.
    • 1995 – Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern, ovoid Toyota logo.
    • 1996 – In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. North American and British models adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the more luxurious Lexus LX 450.
    • 1997 – A limited run of Land Cruiser 80 was built specifically for collectors and is therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collector's Edition has Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings along with black pearl badging. The Collector's Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colours.
    • 1997 – A total of 4,744 FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in 2 colours Antique Sage Pearl (often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter, or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors, and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured with the optional electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks and running boards. There are some examples that did not have many of these optional extras. This was the last year for the electric locking front differentials.
    • 2008 – Last 80-Series models was built in Venezuela [32][28] which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.

    Land Cruiser (with swing-out back-doors)

    Toyota Land Cruiser (pre-facelift with lift up tailgate)

    Toyota Land Cruiser GXL (FZJ80, post facelift)

    Toyota Land Cruiser 40th Anniversary (HZJ80 post-facelift, rear view)

Hapkido
Hangul
Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
FJ80R/L 3F-E 4.0 L petrol I6 112 kW (152 PS 150 hp) at 4,000 rpm 290 N⋅m (214 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm Australia, North America
FZJ80R/L 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (215 PS 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N⋅m (275 lb⋅ft) at 3,200 rpm Australia, Gulf Cooperation Council states, North Africa, North America
HDJ80R 1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 115 kW (156 PS 154 hp) at 3,600 rpm 357 N⋅m (263 lb⋅ft) at 1,800 rpm Australia
HZJ80R 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW (131 PS 129 hp) at 4,000 rpm 271 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm Australia

J100 (1998) Edit

In January 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series. The 100 series was previewed in October 1997 as the "Grand Cruiser" at the 32nd Tokyo Motor Show. Development began in 1991 under code name 404T, with the final design being frozen in mid-1994. [33] [34]

There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front and rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian, Russian, and South American markets.

In 1998, a suspension system combining Active Height Control (AHC) and Skyhook TEMS Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension on the Land Cruiser J100 was introduced. [35]

In 2002, Toyota introduced Night View, the first worldwide series production active automotive night vision system, on the Toyota Land Cruiser Cygnus or Lexus LX470. This system uses the headlight projectors emitting near infrared light aimed like the car's highbeam headlights and a CCD camera then captures that reflected radiation, this signal is then processed by a computer which produces a black-and-white image which is projected on the lower section of the windshield. [36] It was also the first Toyota vehicle with roll-over sensor and control logic [37]

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, [38] independent front suspension (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle's off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets was made. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Despite the 100 and 105 bodies being very similar, there are some exterior visual indications between both models. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while the 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows both versions to retain similar wheel tracks, despite the 100 having a relatively wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.

The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since the vehicle's launch in 1998. The automotive press in Australia were critical of Toyota's decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine stated "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2007.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grille, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.

Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
HZJ105 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW (131 PS 129 hp) at 3,800 rpm 271 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) at 2,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ105 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 180 kW (245 PS 241 hp) at 4,600 rpm 410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ100 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 180 kW (245 PS 241 hp) at 4,600 rpm 410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm Middle East, China
UZJ100 2UZ-FE 4.7 L petrol V8 170 kW (231 PS 228 hp) at 4,800 rpm 410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 3,400 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK
HDJ100 1 1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 123 kW (167 PS 165 hp) at 3,600 rpm 352 N⋅m (260 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm Africa, South America
HDJ100 2 1HD-FTE 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 150 kW (204 PS 201 hp) at 3,400 rpm 430 N⋅m (317 lb⋅ft) at 1,400 rpm Australia*, Europe, Japan, Middle East, New Zealand, UK

*This engine was not introduced in Australia until 2000.

The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been three known issues identified, generally for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:


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The majority of the South Korean tourist industry is supported by domestic tourism. Thanks to the country's extensive network of trains and buses, most of the country lies within a day's round trip of any major city. International tourists come primarily from nearby countries in Asia. Japan, China, Hong Kong and Taiwan together account for roughly 75% of the total number of international tourists. [5] In addition, the Korean Wave has brought increasing numbers of tourists from Southeast Asia and India. The Korea Tourism Organization (KTO) is targeting 100,000 arrivals from India in 2013. [6]

The number of Korean domestic tourists has increased since 2010. The number of people who participated in domestic travel (which includes one-day trips) was about 238.3 million (in 2015). It increased by 4.9% compared to 2014 (227.1 million). [7] In 2014, Korean's domestic tourism expenditure was ₩14.4 trillion. [8]

Also, Korean oversea tourists keep increasing since 2010. From 2012 to 2014, the number of people travelling overseas has risen by about 8.2% on average. In 2014, number of Korean oversea tourists was about 16.1 million. And Korean oversea tourism expenditure was $19,469.9 million. [9]

In the past, South Koreans were not likely to travel overseas, due to the Korean War and subsequent economic difficulties, as well as government restrictions on overseas travel, with passports issued only for a narrow range of reasons, such as traveling abroad on government businesses, for technical training, and so on. Since the 1960s, overseas travel restrictions and regulations have been continuously reviewed to prevent foreign currency waste from traveling abroad. However, during the 1980s, the liberalization of international travel has begun to take place in catering to the globalization of the South Korea society. Since then, South Koreans have been able to travel freely abroad. [10]

The busy lifestyle of modern South Koreans, leading to difficulties in mediating vacations with family or friends, and the increase in one-person households, have contributed to the growing number of South Koreans traveling alone. Therefore, the popularity of destinations close to South Korea, where South Koreans can go for short vacations alone, are increasing. According to the results of a plane ticket analysis in 2016, the top foreign destination for South Koreans is Osaka, followed by Bangkok and Tokyo. Moreover, Osaka, Tokyo, and Shanghai have high re-visit rates for South Koreans. However European destinations such as London, Paris, and Rome have fallen in re-visit rating, due to geographical distances, expensive air fares and high costs. [11]

International tourists typically enter the country through Incheon International Airport, near Seoul, which was found to be the world's best airport in 2006. [12] Also international airports in Busan and Jeju are frequently used.

In 2013, travel and tourism (domestic and international) directly contributed KRW26.7 trillion to South Korean GDP and directly supported 617,500 jobs in the country. [13]

In 2018, travel and tourism based on international expenditure directly contributed KRW 16.7 trillion to the South Korean GDP and directly supported 1.4 million jobs, this represented 5.3% of the total employment in the country (OECD).

In 2019, the contribution of travel and tourism to the Korean GDP was up 4.2% of the total economy (KRW 81.4 billion). Which accounted for 4.8% of total employment (1.3%). The impact of international visitors accounted for KRW 26.5 billion (World Travel and Tourism Council). [14]

Spending habits include Leisure spending 82% vs. Business spending 18% Domestic spending 55% vs. International spending 45%

According to the numbers in the graph, leisure spending is 64% higher than business spending while domestic spending is only 10% higher than international spending. [15]

Arrival Edit

Visitors arriving to South Korea for tourism by nationality: [16]

The top 12 nationalities of international visitors for all purpose are: [16]
Rank Country 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
1 China 6,023,021 4,789,512 4,169,353 8,067,722 5,984,170
2 Japan 3,271,706 2,948,527 2,311,447 2,297,893 1,837,782
3 Taiwan 1,260,493 1,115,333 925,616 833,465 518,190
4 United States 1,044,038 967,992 868,881 866,186 767,613
5 Hong Kong 694,934 683,818 658,031 650,676 523,427
6 Thailand 571,610 558,912 498,511 470,107 371,769
7 Vietnam 553,731 457,818 324,740 251,402 162,765
8 Philippines 503,867 460,168 448,702 556,745 403,622
9 Malaysia 408,590 382,929 307,641 311,254 223,350
10 Russia 343,057 302,542 270,427 233,973 188,106
11 Indonesia 278,575 249,067 230,837 295,461 193,590
12 Singapore 246,142 231,897 216,170 221,548 160,153
Total 17,502,756 15,346,879 13,335,758 17,241,823 13,231,651
Year Number of international visitor
arriving in S. Korea
% change from
previous year
2003 4,752,762 -11.1
2004 5,818,138 +22.4
2005 6,022,752 +3.5
2006 6,155,046 +2.2
2007 6,448,240 +4.8
2008 6,890,841 +6.9
2009 7,817,533 +13.4
2010 8,797,658 +12.5
2011 9,794,796 +11.3
2012 11,140,028 +13.7
2013 12,175,550 +9.3
2014 14,201,516 +16.6
2015 13,231,651 -6.8
2016 17,241,823 +30.3
2017 13,335,758 -22.7
2018 15,346,879 +15.1
2019 17,502,756 +14.0

China Edit

China has been South Korea's largest tourism source for years. In 2016, visitors from China made up 46.8% of tourists in South Korea. However China imposed the group tour ban after the US military started to deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system in South Korea. From April 2017, Chinese tourists plummeted by more than 60% compared to the previous year. [17] [18] In recent years, the South Korean tourism industry has made it a long term goal to reduce dependency on Chinese tourists. [19]

Japan Edit

Since Lee Myung-bak's visit to the Liancourt Rocks and his demand for an apology from the Emperor of Japan over Japanese colonialism in Korea in 2012, the Japanese public's image of South Korea deteriorated significantly. Japanese tourists to South Korea declined by half from 3.5 million in 2012 to 1.8 million in 2015, while South Korean tourists to Japan doubled from 2 million in 2012 to 4 million in 2015. [20] [21] [22]


Attack on titan is set in the future not the past

the first episode of snk is titled "to you 2000 years in the future". Most read this as to you who are 2000 years in the future, but from the beginning i read it as to you. 2000 years from where you are now. A lot of people seem to believe that attack on titan is set in the past, which is fair considering the technology and architecture the ambiguously written title of the first episode. I couldn't find proof, or anything that would validate my idea in any way beyond "well this is how it could be read", but recently, I was rewatching the series and I got onto the scene where Hanji is naming her captured titans. She goes into a story about cannibals who once roamed some mountains, and other things not so important. While listening to this I actually got curious about the story and decided to google it. Hanji Zoe said " a long time ago" and went into a story based off real life events that occurred in the fifteen hundreds, meaning it is impossible for the events of AoT to be set 2000 years before modern day, being that would set AoT behind the events of Hanjis story

EDIT- it's nice to see interest in this topic. this theory would suggest attack on titan is set in an alternate timeline within our universe in which around the 1500s titans appeared and humans growth has stunted for at least two thousand years, leaving you with the technology you see in the series the Fallout franchise is a mirror of this idea(but in that series the point of divergence from irl events technology prospers)


Contents

After Kenny kills her mother and attempted to kill her when she still a child due her noble status, Rod Reiss (her father) intercepted their efforts by offering an alternative arrangement: that if, she were to disappear from the Reiss household, assume a new name and identity before enlisting as a soldier, that would mean they would not need to kill her. The soldiers agreed with this, and Rod Reiss then gave her the new name and identity of "Krista Lenz"

As Krista Lenz, She is a very useful and kind girl, who enjoys helping other people. She is highly charismatic, often making people see her as a goddess. She also seems to be somewhat shy and doesn't know how to react in certain situations. However, as noted in later chapters, her desire to perform good acts partly stems from a desire to gain honor through them. She seems to want this honor and glory because of her dark past. But changes on the journey. Ymir notes that Historia's urge to show kindness to others stems not only from a desire to gain their esteem, but also that of the people around her: to be seen as a good person.

After being abandoned by Ymir, who leave her along with Reiner and Bertolt, Historia become very pessimistic, revealing her true name and her true personality, and claim no longer to be "Krista Lenz" that people always know to be so kind and shy, while herself is a vacant person. Although Eren Yeager tells her that she seems more genuine and "less creepy" now, she continues to regard herself as lacking any true nature or identity. During uprising arc, Historia slowly got her process in the story and slowly gain her own strength and her own identity. When her father tries to manipulate her by making her the next "Founding Titan" and eat Eren Yeager, she decides against his will and frees Eren and bravely kills him.

When she become a queen, she gains a more calm, mature, and charismatic nature. Like Krista persona, she still has kind side especially towards orphans inside the wall.


History

Abandoned as a child, Elsa grew up on the streets of the Holy Kingdom of Gusteko, Γ] the northernmost of the world's four great nations that was known for its freezing weather and spiritualism. She stole from and hurt people in order to survive, although her way of life didn't allow for any happiness or sense of fulfilment. One day, while stealing from a store in a blizzard, the owner of the shop caught Elsa and tried to have his way with her. Without hesitation, Elsa grasped a shard of glass from a bottle of Granhiert and slit her assailant's belly open. The warmth of the man's entrails made Elsa forget the coldness that enveloped her life, and for the first time she felt truly alive. As a result, she developed a gruesome fetish for gutting people and fighting with her life on the line against opponents doing the same. She earned recognition as the "Bowel Hunter," who was feared across the world for her gruesome fetish. After being experimented on, she gained regenerative capabilities that allowed her to fight recklessly.

Eventually, she was approached by a Black Dragon who introduced herself as a mysterious figure known only as Mother, and after morphing into a small girl with gold-coloured hair and scarlet-red eyes, recognised Elsa as one of her daughters.

As an assassin, Elsa was one sent after Meili, who was currently living with the Demon Beasts as a feral child in a forest. As instructed, she killed all the Demon Beasts and brought the child back. At that time, Meili was in a state where she couldn't speak, so her manner of speech and such was greatly influenced by Elsa. Δ] Elsa found a partner in the young teenage girl Meili Portroute, who had the power to control Demon Beasts. Elsa and Meili became as close as sisters overtime.

At one point, the Bowel Hunter was tasked with killing an important figure from the Sacred Empire of Vollachia, a meritocratic nation located to the far south of the Holy Kingdom of Gusteko. Although she was able to kill her target, she was confronted by Vollachia's Blue Lightning, who was acting as the person's bodyguard. Barely escaping with her life, the event would be forever engraved in Elsa's memory.


محتویات

پس از مرگ تیمور، ترکان عثمانی و آل جلایر و ترکمانان قراقویونلو، برخی سرزمین‌هایی را که تیمور گرفته بود تصرف کردند. با این همه، فرزندان تیمور موفق شدند که شمال ایران را در مدت یک سده تحت فرمانروایی خود نگاهدارند؛ ولی آنان اغلب با یکدیگر در کشمکش بودند. سرانجام شاهرخ موفق شد که مناقشات اقوام خود را تا حدی رفع و قدرت و اعتبار کشور را نگهداری کند؛ ولی پس از مرگ او منطقه تحت فرمانش به قسمت‌های کوچک‌تر مجزا شد و صفویان توانستند آن‌ها را به حکومت خود پیوست کنند.

با این حال خاندان تیموری از میان نرفت و نوادگان تیمور به سرکردگی بابر چندی پستر فرمانروایی خود را به هندوستان بردند و دولت سلسلهٔ بابری را بنیاد گذاردند که اروپائیان آن را مغول کبیر می‌نامند.

دوران شکوه امپراتوری گورکانی یا مغول کبیر تا اواسط پادشاهی اورنگ‌زیب عالمگیر بود پس از وی یعنی در دوران مغول صغیر از قدرت این امپراتوری به شدت کاسته شد و کشور هند که در روزگار اکبرشاه و شاه‌جهان و اورنگ‌زیب سیر تمدن و ترقی را آغاز کرده بود رو به ضعف نهاد. بهادرشاه دوم آخرین فرمانروای گورکانی بود که در سال ۱۸۵۷ میلادی تاج و تخت را به انگلیسی‌ها واگذار کرد.

پس از حملهٔ نادرشاه گورکانیان ضعیف شدند در جنوب پادشاهی ماراتا که قدرتی تازه و دشمنی خطرناک از هر لحاظ حتی فرهنگی به‌شمار می‌آمد مناطق جنوبی را تصرف کرد. دین رسمی حکومت ماراتا هندو بود در حالی که گورکانیان یک دولت مسلمان بودند. به این ترتیب گورکانیان ضعیف شدند تا اینکه در سال ۱۸۵۷ میلادی بدست کمپانی هند شرقی بریتانیا نابود شدند.


Watch the video: Hange Kills Three Colossal Titans The Rumbling (January 2022).