The Great Forbidden City of China

The Great Forbidden City of China

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Forbidden City is the imperial palace that was once home to the emperors of China during the final two imperial dynasties, the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty. The complex covers an incredible 720,000 m2 and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, listed by UNESCO as holding the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Construction of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China began during the fourth year of the reign of the Ming emperor Yongle (A.D. 1406), and was completed in A.D. 1420. In the following half a millennia, the Forbidden City saw the enthronement of 14 emperors of the Ming Dynasty, and 10 emperors of the Qing Dynasty. The Forbidden City was built as a replica of the ‘Purple Palace’ in Heaven, as the emperor of China was believed to be the Son of Heaven. Vast numbers of huge stones were mined and transported to the site for its construction, the heaviest of which weigh more than 220 tonnes and would have weighed more than 330 tonnes before they fragmented. It has been determined that the largest blocks came from a quarry 70 kilometres away and since people in China were using the wheel since around 1500 BC, it was believed that this is how the huge stones were transported. However, last year, a 500-year-old document was translated which revealed how the giant stones were slid for miles on specially constructed sledges, and dragged over slippery paths of wet ice by a team of men over 28 days. The workers dug wells every 500 metres to get water to pour on the ice to lubricate it, which made it easier to slide the rocks.

An historical document revealed that huge stone blocks were dragged along ice. Photo credit: Daily Mail

The Forbidden City has 800 buildings, and is said to contain some 9,000 chambers (8,700 in reality). Yet, all this was inaccessible to the ordinary Chinese, as it was the residence of the emperor and the royal family. This was even more so for the Inner Court, as it was the domestic realm of the Forbidden City, while the Outer Court was used for ceremonial purposes, and was accessible to government officials and foreign dignitaries. In fact, the only men allowed into the Inner Court were eunuchs (men who were castrated), so as to ensure the ‘authenticity’ of the emperor’s offspring.

The Great Forbidden City has 800 buildings within its walls. Source: BigStockPhoto

It is certainly true that the Forbidden City was the centre of power in China, and filled with luxuries and pleasures of the flesh. For instance, it has been claimed that the Empress Dowager Cixi’s meals commonly consisted of 108 dishes, an amount that could have fed several thousand of her impoverished subjects. In addition, the emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties had numerous concubines to satisfy his sexual desires – historical records state that by the Qing dynasty there were around 20,000! Despite the power that the emperor wielded and the opulence he was living in, life in the Forbidden City was very much like living in a gilded cage, as the emperor was not really free to venture beyond the walls of the Forbidden City. Elaborate precautions had to be taken when the emperor travelled outside the Forbidden City so as to ensure his safety. For instance, he would have ridden in a palanquin, escorted by guards, and have the travel route scouted beforehand.

The spectacular temples within the Forbidden City contain ornate designs. Source: BigStockPhoto

Interestingly, the first Westerner to be allowed into the Forbidden City was the Italian Jesuit missionary, Matteo Ricci. Although Ricci’s objective was to spread the Christian faith in China, his admission into the Forbidden City in 1601 was not due to his religious beliefs, but because of his scientific knowledge. Another Westerner who managed to enter the Forbidden City, this time during the Qing Dynasty, was Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, an American citizen. Amazingly, Houckgeest’s account of his visit to the Forbidden City in 1795 has been preserved in his journal. As Houckgeest visited the Forbidden City during the period when the Qing Dynasty was at its height of power, he witnessed the wealth and splendour of the country, which is described in his journal. Houckgeest also provides his readers with some extraordinary stories about life in the Forbidden City. For example, he wrote that he was served meat that had been gnawed on by the emperor. Apparently, this was a great honour accorded by the emperor.

The Forbidden City surrounded by its moat. Source: BigStockPhoto

As of today, the Forbidden City is forbidden no more, as an estimated 7 million tourists visit this site each year. As the amount of tourists in the Forbidden City is a threat to this important historical site, it has been proposed that tourist numbers be limited. For instance, the new limitations will prohibit annual ticket holders from visiting during peak seasons, encourage tourists to visit in the afternoon and to buy tickets in advance during festivals and holidays. Perhaps this would be a good step to take, as it would lessen the burden of tourism on the Forbidden City, but keep it accessible to the public.

Featured image: T he Forbidden City . Photo source: BigStockPhoto

By Ḏḥwty


China Highlights, 2014. The Forbidden City. [Online]
Available at:

Dunn Jr., J. C., 2014. [Online]
Available at:

Jarus, O., 2014. American's Visit to China's Forbidden City Revealed in Old Journal. [Online]
Available at:

Polland, J., 2014. Check Out Beijing's Forbidden City Before It Starts Limiting Visitors. [Online]
Available at:

Rough Guides, 2014. [Online]
Available at:

UNESCO, 2014. Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang. [Online]
Available at:

Wikipedia, 2014. Forbidden City. [Online]
Available at:

Wikipedia, 2014. Matteo Ricci. [Online]
Available at:


Much of the palace was rebuilt during the reign of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1402-1424) in the early Ming Dynasty, when the capital was returned to Beijing from Nanjing. Though known as the "Forbidden City" or simply "Imperial Palace" in English, in both Chinese and Japanese the palace is referred to as "purple forbidden castle," a reference to the "purple forbidden enclosure" (紫微垣, J: shibien, C: zǐ wēi yuán), the constellation surrounding the North Star and seen as the cosmic imperial residence. Ώ] During the Qing Dynasty, a complex of imperial yurts was erected alongside the palace, where emperors could engage in rituals and practices of Manchu rule.

Many portions of the palace surviving today date back to the Ming Dynasty, while other portions date only back to the Qing, or to 20th century repairs or restorations. The vast compound includes the Qianlong Gardens, constructed by the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735-1796) and designed in part by the Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione. Extensive conservation work has been undertaken by the World Monuments Fund in this part of the palace since 2001. It includes the Juànqínzhāi, famous for its trompe l'oiel mural paintings and indoor theatre space.

The palace was last occupied by members of the Imperial family in 1924, after which it came more completely under the control of the State. The Palace Museum was opened within the palace a year later, on Oct 10, 1925. ΐ]

Yong Le’s vision

In 1402 Yong Le rose to the head of the Ming dynasty. After declaring himself Emperor, he moved his capital to Beijing. His reign was peaceful and prosperous and in 1406, he set out to build a palatial city.

It was be called Zi Jin Cheng, the ‘Heavenly Forbidden City’. It was to be the most extravagant and palatial complex ever built, for exclusive use of the Emperor and his attendees.

Built from 1406 to 1420, the palace complex has undergone many changes. After serving as the imperial palace for some five hundred years, the Forbidden City became a museum, the Palace Museum, in 1925. In 1987, it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

There is just one entrance to Forbidden City, namely the southern gate, or Meridian Gate, also known as Wumen in Chinese. South of the Southern Gate is Tiananmen Tower and Tiananmen Square. There is just one exit gate to Forbidden City, namely the northern gate, or Gate of Divine, also known as Shenwu Men in Chinese.

Throughout History

China has not had an easy history. In the last one hundred years, China has gone from a monarchy to a capitalist, democratic republic to a communist state. China has seen great changes and turmoils. It has seen wars, famine, revolution, disease, infighting and upheaval. But what do we think of when we think of Chinese history? We think of Emperors, Empresses, princes, princesses, big, fancy houses, fine furniture, paddyfields, baggy robes, pigtails, chopsticks, incense, Taoism and the millions of Chinese peasantry.

But what was China really like back when the Chinese Empire still existed?

China has had a long history of tens of thousands of years and over a dozen dynasties and smaller kingdoms ruling over it, all fighting for power and control. China is a massive country and controlling the entire nation is an ambitious undertaking. For centuries, kings, armies and emperors fought each other and at various points in Chinese history, the country was united, divided, united, divided, united and divided yet again, as kings, emperors and generals fought for control. To try and cover over four thousand years of Chinese history in one article is far too ambitious…so I won’t. Let’s take a more general view of Imperial China and look at the parts of China that have entered the public, global image of China.

The Chinese Emperor and the Mandate of Heaven

In older times, China was ruled by an emperor, as were most Asian countries, such as the current Emperor of Japan. In China, the Emperor was seen as a demigod, appointed by the Chinese gods to be their representative on earth. Think of it as the Chinese equivalent of the Western belief of the ‘Divine Right of Kings’.

The Emperor held absolute power over all of China (provided of course, it was all of China that he controlled at the time of his reign). His right to this power came from the ancient belief of the Mandate of Heaven, similar to the above concept of the Divine Right of Kings in Western monarchies. In its essence, the Mandate of Heaven, according to traditional Confucian teachings, stated that so long as an incumbent emperor was reasonable, kind, just and merciful towards the commoners, he would retain the right to rule. If his rule became objectionable in any way and remained so until it became intolerable, it was the right of the people to overthrow the emperor and his dynasty and establish a new one. If the emperor was successfully overthrown and defeated, the common people would take it as a sign that the emperor had displeased the gods and had therefore, lost their blessing and protection, which meant that the blessing of the gods would transfer to the next dynasty to be established.

And this was the essence of Chinese dynastic imperial rule for centuries.

According to research of ancient Chinese documents, the Mandate of Heaven has existed ever since it was put to paper by Zhou Gongdan, brother to the first emperor of the Zhou Dynasty (established 1045 B.C). The original documents as written by Duke Zhou Gongdan, outline the eight main points of the traditional Mandate of Heaven, as was followed by every ruler of China since then for the next two thousand years. In essence, they state that:

1. The Right to Rule China is Granted by Heaven.
2. There will only be ONE ruler of China at any one time.
3. The right of the Emperor to Rule is based on his good conduct and his being the earthly representative of Heaven.
4. While the Mandate of Heaven is maintained, dynastic rule (father-to-son) is allowed. Failure to maintain the Mandate will result in the loss of the right to dynastic rule.

With these four main rules of the Mandate of Heaven came the four corresponding implications or conditions:

5. The ruling family of China must be seen as legitimate by the People of China.
6. If China is ruled by more than one family or person, the family or person that puts forward a legitimate claim to the Mandate must be able to justify it to the people of China.
7. Rulers are responsible for their own behaviour and must make the welfare of the Chinese people their first priority.
8. Rulers of China should always be mindful of revolutions. A revolution would indicate the displeasure of the people and therefore, the loss of the Mandate of Heaven.

If you read the Terms and Conditions of the Mandate of Heaven, you may notice that it doesn’t mention anything about noble birth. Noble birth is not (and never was) a condition of rulership over China, in contrast to rulership of contemporary Western monarchies. In theory, any man could become ruler of China. Of course, the men with the best chance of ruling China were those who were already close to the emperor, men like advisors, ministers and prominent royal officials.

You might not believe it, but becoming part of the governing class of Imperial China was not as difficult as it might seem.

In ancient times, the only way to get into the Chinese Government was to ‘know the right people’.People gained access to the administrative bureaucracy by being recommended for vacancies by current bureaucrats or by prominent Chinese noblemen. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty established an examination system during his reign (141 B.C. – 87 B.C.) based on Confucian teachings. Any man could apply for these examinations if he could pay the fees and had the necessary education. Applicants or students who passed the examinations would be given posts in the Imperial Bureaucracy. From there, it was just a matter of getting promoted until you got high enough in the imperial ladder to hopefully one day, become emperor. The Imperial Examination was a part of Chinese life until the fall of Imperial China centuries later.

The most famous (and the largest) remnant and symbol of Imperial China and the Chinese Emperor: The Forbidden City in Beijing, China.

Despite what you might think, the Forbidden City was not the first palace to house the Emperor of China. In fact, the Forbidden City was not built until the second emperor of the Ming Dynasty came along. The emperor’s father, the first emperor (and founder) of the Ming Dynasty moved the Chinese capital from Peking to Nanking (what are Beijing and Nanjing today) during his reign. When his son, the Yongle Emperor came to the throne, he moved the Chinese capital back to Beijing and in 1406, ordered the start of construction of a grand new imperial residence that would eventually become known as the ‘Zijincheng‘, or the ‘Purple Forbidden City’ (In China, as was also the case in contemperous Western monarchies, purple was the colour of monarchy. Why? Because purple dye was notoriously difficult to make, and therefore extremely expensive, which meant that only kings and emperors could afford it). In time, the structure just became known as the ‘Forbidden City’.

The Forbidden City took fifteen years to build. It holds the Guiness Record as being the largest palace complex on earth. From the completion of its construction until the fall of Imperial China, it was the seat of power for the Chinese Emperor.

The Forbidden City gets its name quite simply because commoners were forbidden to enter its walls. The only people allowed inside were the Emperor’s family, government officials, servants, courtiers and of course…the Imperial eunuchs.

Eunuchs have a long history in China. They ranged from prisoners of war to men found guilty of the crime of rape (or any other crime for which castration was the punishment) and men who became slaves were also turned into eunuchs. But most famously, eunuchs were employed in their thousands by the Imperial household to act as servants to the emperor and his family. Since eunuchs were incapable of having sex, they were unable to establish their own families (and by extension, their own dynasties) which might threaten the power and position of the emperor, which was the main justification behind the employment of eunuchs by the Imperial court.

The Peculiarities of the Palace

The imperial palace, the great Forbidden City in Beijing, was (and remains) unlike almost any other palace complex in the world. To begin with, it is the largest palace complex in the world. It has hundreds of buildings and miles of walls, dozens of watchtowers, acres of courtyards, gardens and several enormous gates. The walls and gates divided the palace and servants, courtiers, officials and members of the imperial family were strictly segregated. Only certain people were allowed in the innermost areas of the palace grounds and buildings where the emperor lived with his family. In total, the palace has 9,999 rooms. This was considered good luck because the Chinese word for ‘nine’, ‘Jiu‘, is pronounced the same way as the Chinese word meaning ‘long-lasting’.

Because a number of the buildings in the palace were made of wood, there are several enormous cauldrons placed around the various palace courtyards. The cauldrons were used to collect rainwater which would then be used to put out fires in an emergency.

Despite the palace’s enormous size, because it was also designed as a fortress, there are only four gates into the main complex, and a fifth gate (the Gate of Supreme Harmony) that leads to the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the structure used by the emperor on his wedding-day and on special occasions. Because of the hall’s general inaccessibility, it was impractical to use it on a regular basis when the emperor would hold court. So, although this was officially one of the hall’s intended purposes, it was rarely occupied for this use. The Hall of Supreme Harmony is also the location of the ‘Dragon Throne’ mentioned in the title of this article. The Dragon Throne was the official seat (literally) of the Emperor of China.

Colours play an important part in Chinese culture, and some colours held special significance in the Chinese Imperial Court.

Red was the colour of happiness.

Purple was officially the colour of the Emperor of China himself, although he might also wear robes that were dyed yellow instead.

Gold or Yellow was the colour of the Imperial Family. In imperial times, only members of the Imperial Family were allowed to wear yellow or own objects coloured in yellow.

An interesting fact is that the floor of the Hall of Supreme Harmony is laid with golden bricks to symbolise the Imperial Family and the emperor. Okay, that’s not quite right. Yes, the floor of the hall is made up of bricks. But no, they don’t actually contain any gold. They get their name ‘golden bricks’ because the bricks (fired in the imperial kiln), took an incredibly long time to make. Because they took so long and were so difficult to make, each brick was considered to be worth it’s weight in gold (and probably cost just as much!), hence the name ‘golden bricks’.

The Chinese Empire lasted for centuries. But it could not last forever. And it couldn’t last in the 20th century.

The Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion of the late 19th century caused great instability in China. The last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, was becoming increasingly unpopular with ordinary Chinese citizens…probably because it wasn’t Chinese.

That’s right. A Chinese dynasty that wasn’t Chinese. How is this possible?

The Qing Dynasty just sounds so…Chinese…doesn’t it?

Well, that was the whole point. To make it sound as Chinese as possible. That way, hopefully, people would forget the dynasty’s other name: The Manchu Dynasty.

The Manchu Dynasty got its name from where its people originated from, a geographic region northeast of China, then called ‘Manchuria’. But how does this differ from the rest of China and how do its people differ from the rest of the Chinese population?

Well, up until the mid-1600s, China had always been ruled by a Han emperor. That is to say, it was ruled by an emperor who came from amongst the Han people, the Han being the main ethnic group in China (this is why the Chinese language is called ‘Hanyu‘ or the ‘Han Language’, and the Chinese people are called ‘Hanren‘ or the ‘Han People’ in their native tongue).

But in the early-1600s, all this changed and Manchu people from the north of what is now part of China, invaded Beijing. To the ordinary Chinese people, they saw the Manchus as being foreigners and not part of the China or the Chinese people which they knew. They were not Han people and were therefore considered outsiders. But the Han seized power in the 1640s and remained in power, founding the ‘Qing Dynasty’ to make themselves sound ‘more Chinese’.

The Chinese people, who had been growing more and more displeased with the Qing Dynasty, were itching for a chance to abolish the monarchy and found a new government: A western-stye democractic republic.

In 1908, the aged and extremely bad-tempered Empress Dowager, Cixi, died of old age. She had ruled China as it’s empress for nearly fifty years after the death of her husband. When she died at the age of 72, the last emperor of China inherited the throne.

He was not a powerful man. He was not an authoratative man.

The diminutive Puyi, just three years old when he inherited the throne, was the great-nephew of the Empress Dowager Cixi (a fact that took me a while to figure out. Imperial Chinese succession can be hideously frustrating, confusing and convoluted). He ‘ruled’ from 1908-1912, although, because he was far too young at the time, his father ruled as his regent.

In 1912, the Republic of China was declared and Puyi abdicated in 1911. He was briefly restored to power for the grand total of eleven days in 1917, but was dethroned on the 12th of July, 1917 and lost power for the second time in less than ten years this time for good.

Puyi lived in the Forbidden City with his family and his servants and courtiers until 1924. By now, Imperial Chinese Rule had disintergrated to such a level that it was little more than a show of power and a shadow of what it once was. The palace eunuchs had all been fired in 1923 and the enormous imperial complex was virtually empty. In 1924, Puyi was finally kicked out of the palace. To prevent his returning to the Forbidden City and possibly staging a coup to take back the throne, the entire palace complex was declared a museum and the Forbidden City was given its current name: the Palace Museum.

Puyi’s life was one of constant change. Even though he was an emperor of China, he never ever really ruled anything. Not China, not even the puppet-state of Manchukou which the Japanese made him the ruler of in 1932. He finally died on the 17th of October, 1967. He was 61 years old.

Before his death, Puyi was encouraged by the government of the People’s Republic of China to write his autobiography, perhaps recognising his significant and special place in Chinese history. His autobiography (translated from Chinese) is “The First Half of My Life“. When the text was translated into English, it was given the title “From Emperor to Citizen”.

The Great Forbidden City of China - History

The Ming Dynasty is often called the last of the great Chinese dynasties. It ruled Ancient China from 1368 to 1644. It was followed by the Qing Dynasty.

Prior to the Ming Dynasty, China had been ruled by the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty was set up by the Mongols who had conquered China about 100 years earlier. Many Chinese did not like the Mongols and considered them the enemy. Finally, the Mongols were overthrown and ousted from China by a peasant uprising.

Emperor Hongwu by Hardouin

The peasant uprising that removed the Mongols and the Yuan Dynasty from power was led by a man named Zhu Yuanzhang. He took control of China and named himself Emperor Hongwu. This was the beginning of the Ming Dynasty.

This was an era of large civil engineering projects including:

The Great Wall of China - The Great Wall was almost completely rebuilt by the Ming Dynasty. The tall and wide brick walls that are still standing today were built by the Ming.
Grand Canal - The Grand Canal was rebuilt during this time. This had a significant impact on trade and helped the economy to flourish.
Forbidden City - This city was the emperor's palace and was located inside the capital city of Beijing. It had almost 1000 buildings and covered over 185 acres of land.

Art flourished during the Ming Dynasty. This included literature, painting, music, poetry, and porcelain. Ming vases made of blue and white porcelain were prized at the time throughout the world. They are still considered quite valuable.

Ming Porcelain by Iwanafish

Literature reached new heights during this era as well. Three of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese Literature were written during the Ming Dynasty. They are Outlaws of the Marsh, Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Journey to the West.

The government was run by an organization called the civil service. In order to get a job with the civil service, applicants had to take difficult exams. The men with the highest scores would get the best jobs. Some men would study for years to try and pass the exams and earn one of these prestigious positions. The exams often covered a number of subjects, but a significant portion of the testing was on the teachings of Confucius.

Emperor Chengzu was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty. He did a lot of good things to strengthen China like re-building the Grand Canal and establishing trade and diplomacy with other countries. He also moved the capital to Beijing and built the Forbidden City. He later was known as the Yongle Emperor.

Zheng He was a great Chinese explorer. He set out at the command of Emperor Chengzu and visited many lands with the Chinese navy. He went throughout Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and even to Africa. After visiting Somalia in Africa he brought back a giraffe for the Emperor.

The metropolis is located in northern China and the municipality of Beijing extends over a surface of 16 800 km2. Mountains to the north, northwest, and west shield the city which is close to the Great Wall of China.

Beijing has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate characterized by hot, humid summers and usually cold, windy, dry winters. The monthly daily average temperature in January is −3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while in July it is 26.2 °C (79.2 °F).

The most pleasant months for tourism are May, with an average temperature of 26,4 °C, and September with 25,8°C. July and August are the months of the year when it is most raining with an average of 10 rainy days during the month.

Forbidden City

The city of Beijing swirls around the mystery of the Forbidden City of China. Also known as the Imperial Palace Museum, it has almost 10,000 buildings splayed across 250 acres. The enclosure housed the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties for around 500 years. A behemoth of a national landmark, its inner workings hold thousands upon thousands of China's rarest treasures and artifacts. It should be no surprise that the Forbidden City of China is one of the premier places for tourists to visit. Its convenient location to the greater Beijing area and other attractions such as the Great Wall certainly doesnt hurt, either.

The wall enveloping the Forbidden City China measures almost 30 feet in height. Held inside is the world's largest palace complex. The Forbidden City history begins in 1407 when over a million laborers began its construction. Thirteen years in the making, the interior is a violent yellow. The bricks that layer the ground, the roofs that rise into the sky, numerous decorations and shrines throughout the Forbidden City of China: all a similar shade of yellow. This is because the traditional color of royalty in China is, of course, yellow. Until 1911, when the revolution finally came to the streets of Beijing, this was where the emperors lived, where they governed, where they prayed.

The Forbidden City China is divided into two main parts. The outer court is where the emperors governed, the inner court is where they, along with the rest of the royal family, lived. The two are separated by the immense Gate of Celestial Purity. But first you have to get inside&mdashthe main gate to the Forbidden City is located to the south, opposite Tiananmen Square. This gate, also called the Meridian Gate, is famous for its resemblance to a phoenix. Like most of Chinese architecture and surroundings, most every aspect of the Forbidden City has a nickname every hallway or courtyard is an ancient symbol, every nook and cranny has some secret meaning. The maze of walls and buildings is also strictly governed by the rigid principles of Feng Shui, the certainty of which gives the many structures an austere and stoic quality to them, the knowledge that everything is in its right place.

China Map

Harmony is an important, and repeating, theme to these hallowed grounds of the Forbidden City China. Reminders of the virtues of Confucius also litter the inner and outer courts, both in name and in spirit. If the enclosure has one major centerpiece, it is The Hall of Supreme Harmony, where emperors decreed laws for the Chinese people. The Hall of Central Harmony and Hall of Central Harmony are close contenders for this title, however.

And these are just a couple of the numerous halls that are spread throughout the Forbidden City of China. One of the most historically and culturally significant remnants of the former Chinese empire, it is also one of the busiest in regards to tourists. Even in the dead of winter, the crowds can be excruciating. The best time to wander the exquisite grounds is early in the morning, when the silent morning adds to the serenity and power of China's past glory.

Keep Reading

Top 3 Beijing tours chosen by most customers to explore Beijing in the best way. Check the detailed itinerary, or tailor your own trip now with us.

Start planning your tailor-made holiday to China by contacting one of our specialists. Once enquired, you’ll get a response within 0.5

[Important] Travel News for Expats: China travel is reopening now! Travel with China Discovery and learn about where to visit & requirements for each destination! Read Details >

Watch the video: Στην Απαγορευμένη Πόλη στο Πεκίνο (July 2022).


  1. Kane

    You are not right. Let's discuss. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

  2. Marcus

    there are still some gaps

  3. Auliffe

    There is something in this. Now everything is clear, thank you very much for the information.

  4. Idas

    the Relevant message :), it is worth knowing ...

  5. Shaktibar

    all on one and is infinite as well

  6. Shimshon

    Absolutely with you it agree. Idea good, I support.

Write a message