23 October 1941

23 October 1941

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23 October 1941

October 1941

> November

Eastern Front

A Soviet reorganisation sees Zhukov take command of the northern sector and Timoshenko of the southern.

War in the Air

The RAF carries out night raids on Hamburg and Kiel

Disney was a rising movie studio with a lot of potential. Unfortunately, their first three films (Snow White, Pinocchio, and Fantasia) were colossal failures at the box office. When it came to their next film, they looked to another children’s book for inspiration.

They chose the story Dumbo, which was written by Helen Aberson and Harold Pearl. Walt Disney was not impressed with the concept at all. He wasn’t sure if a story about a flying elephant would take off in that era. Fortunately, writers Joe Grant and Dick Huemer persuaded him to green light the project.

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On This Day In

Weather History

October 23rd

Local and Regional Events:

October 23, 1995:

A major fall storm hit Central and Northeast South Dakota and dropped from four inches to one foot of wet snow. The heavy wet snow combined with high winds gusting up to 50 mph snapped several thousand power poles and downed hundreds of miles of line in the counties of Buffalo, Hand, Spink, Roberts and Grant. In Day and Lyman Counties, a few poles were downed with some short lived power outages. Marshall County had no reports of damage or power outages. Several thousand people were left without power for several hours up to several days. Power was not restored to some people until the fourth of November. Portions of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29 were closed from the evening of the 23rd until the morning of the 24th leaving hundreds of motorists stranded. There were also numerous school delays and closings. Many trees and some crops were also damaged as a result of the weight of the snow and high winds. Some snowfall amounts included, 4 inches near Reliance, at Doland, and near Victor, 5 inches southeast of Stephan and at Sisseton, 6 inches south of Ree Heights and at Eden, eight inches at Waubay and Grenville, 9 inches at Clear Lake, 10 inches at Watertown, and 12 inches at Summit and Milbank. This storm was the third damaging storm to the rural electric cooperatives this year and has been called the worst natural disaster in the history of the rural electrics. The total damage estimated for the rural state electrics was $9.5 million.

Local Climate Information:

Click HERE for daily climate information for Aberdeen, Mobridge, Pierre, Sisseton, and Watertown.

Click HERE for daily climate information for Sioux Falls, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux City.

U.S.A and Global Events for October 23rd:

1091: The earliest known tornado in Britain, possibly the most severe on record, hit central London. The church at St. Mary le Bow was severely damaged. Four rafters, each 26 feet long were driven into the ground with such force that only four feet protruded above the surface. Other churches in the area were also demolished along with over 600 houses.

Above is an impression of the St. Mary le Bow tornado by artist Chris Chatfield.

1878: One of the most severe hurricanes to affect eastern Virginia in the latter half of the 19th century struck on October 23, 1878. This storm moved rapidly northward from the Bahamas on October 22nd and hit the North Carolina coast late that same day moving at a forward speed of 40 to 50 mph. The storm continued northward passing through east central Virginia, Maryland and eastern Pennsylvania. The barometric pressure fell to 28.78". The five minute sustained wind reached 84 mph at Cape Henry. During the heaviest part of the gale, the wind at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina registered 100 mph. The instrument itself has finally blown away and therefore no further record was made. Click HERE for more information from the Weather Prediction Center.

1920: Famed research meteorologist Theodore Fujita, was born on this date in Kitakyushu City, Japan. Fujita, known as "Mr. Tornado" after developing the international standard for measuring tornado severity, also discovered microbursts.

1947: Fish fell from the sky in Marksville, LA. Thousands of fish fell from the sky in an area 1,000 feet long by 80 feet wide possibly due to a waterspout. Click HERE for more information from the Library of Congress.

2015: On this day, Hurricane Patricia became the most powerful tropical cyclone ever measured in the Western Hemisphere as its maximum sustained winds reached an unprecedented 200 mph (320 kph) and its central pressure fell to 879 millibars (25.96 inches of mercury). Hurricane Patricia became the strongest Pacific hurricane on record shortly after midnight CDT early on Oct. 23. Air Force Hurricane Hunters had flown through the eye of Patricia and reported a sea-level pressure of 894 millibars as measured by a dropsonde inside the eye itself. Wind measurements suggested that the pressure measurement was not in the exact center of the eye and was probably not the absolute lowest pressure, prompting NHC to estimate the minimum central pressure at 892 millibars in its special 12:30 a.m. CDT advisory. Tropical cyclone strength comparisons are typically based on minimum central pressure. At 892 millibars, Patricia shattered the Eastern Pacific basin's previous record of 902 millibars set by Hurricane Linda in 1997. While a number of typhoons in the western North Pacific have been stronger, Patricia is now by far the strongest hurricane on record in any basin where the term "hurricane" applies to tropical cyclones &ndash namely, the central and eastern North Pacific basins and the North Atlantic basin, which includes the North Atlantic Ocean itself plus the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Click HERE for more information from NASA.

Click HERE for more This Day in Weather History from the Southeast Regional Climate Center.


While a large circus spends the off-season in the "Winter Grounds" in Florida, a flock of white storks delivers babies to the animals. One elephant, Mrs. Jumbo, does not receive her baby, and keeps scanning the sky. The circus sets out on a new tour, and a belated stork catches up with the moving train and drops off the expected baby elephant, Jumbo Junior. The other elephants are initially delighted, until they see the baby has far-oversized ears, and promptly nickname him "Dumbo". However, Mrs. Jumbo shows her baby great care and love, defending him from the teasing of the other elephants.

Dumbo, clumsy due to his ears, is made into a sideshow attraction. When some rowdy boys start blowing in and pulling Dumbo's ears, Mrs. Jumbo spanks their leader and throws hay bales at them. Circus staff remove Dumbo from the pen, and Mrs. Jumbo flies into a rage, eventually dousing the ringmaster in a water tub. She is subsequently deemed mad and locked in a cage. Dumbo is blamed for the incident and shunned by the other elephants.

Timothy, a mouse that travels with the circus, befriends Dumbo and decides to make him a star. He whispers in the ringmaster's ear while the latter sleeps, and convinces him to try a new stunt with Dumbo as the top of a pyramid of elephants. However, Dumbo trips on his ears during the show and knocks over the pyramid, injuring the other elephants and bringing the big top crashing down. After this, the other elephants exile Dumbo completely, and he is put in with the clowns' firemen act, regularly jumping from a "burning building" prop into a vat of pie filling. Despite his newfound popularity, he hates the job and becomes depressed.

Timothy decides to take Dumbo to see Mrs. Jumbo, but they cannot see each other's faces and can only intertwine trunks. Meanwhile, the clowns decide to increase the popularity of their fireman act by dangerously raising the platform Dumbo jumps from. In celebration of the plan, they drink champagne, and a bottle of it falls into a water vat. Dumbo, crying after visiting his mother, gets the hiccups, so Timothy takes him to the vat for water. Both of them get drunk, and hallucinate pink elephants.

Dumbo and Timothy are later discovered asleep high up in a tree by Dandy Crow and his friends. Initially making fun of Timothy's assertion that Dumbo flew with his ears while drunk, the crows are soon moved by Dumbo's sad story. They decide to help Timothy, giving him a "magic feather" to help Dumbo fly. Holding the feather, Dumbo does indeed take off a second time, and he and Timothy return to the circus with plans to surprise the audience.

During the clowns' act, Dumbo jumps off the platform and prepares to fly. He drops the feather, but Timothy assures him it was only a psychological aid, and Dumbo successfully flies about the big top, much to the delight of the public. Dumbo gains fame and fortune, Timothy becomes his new manager and signs him to a Hollywood contract, and Mrs. Jumbo is freed. She and Dumbo are given a private coach on the train, and the crows wave goodbye to the elephants as they travel away.

The voice actors are uncredited for their roles in the film.

  • The title character is Dumbo, the nickname given to Jumbo Jr. He is an elephant who has huge ears and is able to use them to fly, carrying what he thinks of as a magic feather. Like Dopey in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gideon in Pinocchio, and Tootles in Peter Pan, Dumbo does not have a word of spoken dialogue. as Timothy Q. Mouse, an anthropomorphic mouse who becomes the only friend of Dumbo, along with the crows, after his mother is locked up and does his best to make Dumbo happy again. He teaches Dumbo how to become the "ninth wonder of the universe", and the only flying elephant in the world. He is never mentioned by name in the film, but his signature can be read on the contract in a newspaper photograph at the finale. as Elephant Matriarch, the well-meaning but pompous leader of the elephants who is initially cold toward Dumbo. Felton also voices Mrs. Jumbo, Dumbo's mother, who speaks only once in the film to give Dumbo's name. as Dandy Crow (previously named Jim Crow on the original model sheets), the leader of a group of crows. Though he initially jokes and ridicules Timothy's idea that Dumbo can fly, he hears Dumbo's tragic history and becomes determined to help Dumbo fly for real. He is never mentioned by name in the film. as The Ringmaster, who, though not truly evil, is a strict, greedy, and arrogant man who exploits workers and animals. The Ringmaster later appears as an outright villain in the video game Disney's Villains' Revenge. as Mr. Stork, Dumbo's carrier stork seen at the beginning of the film.
  • Margaret Wright as Casey Junior, the sentient 2-4-0tender locomotive hauling the circus train.
  • The Hall Johnson Choir as Crow Chorus
      as Deacon Crow as Fats Crow as Specks Crow
  • Jim Carmichael as Dopey Crow
  • Development

    Dumbo is based upon a children's story written by Helen Aberson-Mayer and Harold Pearl, [4] with illustrations by Helen Durney. [7] The children's book was first brought to the attention of Walt Disney in late 1939 by Disney's head of merchandise licensing Kay Kamen, who showed a prototype of the Roll-A-Book that included Dumbo. Disney immediately grasped its possibilities and heartwarming story and purchased the rights to it. [8]

    Originally it was intended to be a short film however, Disney soon found that the only way to do justice to the book was to make it a feature-length film. [9] At the time, the Disney Studio was in serious financial trouble due to the war in Europe, which caused Pinocchio and Fantasia to fail at the box office, with the result that Dumbo was intended to be a low-budget feature designed to bring revenue to the studio. [10] Story artists Dick Huemer and Joe Grant were assigned to develop the plot into a feature-length film. From January 22 to March 21, 1940, they wrote a 102-page script outline in chapters, much like a book, an unusual way of writing a film script. They conceived the stork-delivery and the pink elephants sequences and had Dumbo's mother renamed from "Mother Ella" to "Mrs. Jumbo". They riffed on elephants' fear of mice by replacing a wise robin named "Red" found in the original story with the wisecracking mouse character, Timothy. They also added a "rusty black crow", which was later expanded into five. [11] Regardless of this, very little was changed from the original draft. [12] In March 1940, a story team headed by Otto Englander translated the outline into story sketches. [13]


    From Disney's perspective, Dumbo required none of the special effects that had slowed down production and grew the budgets of Pinocchio, Fantasia, and Bambi. [14] When the film went into production in early 1941, supervising director Ben Sharpsteen was given orders to keep the film simple and inexpensive. [15] As a result, the character designs are simpler, background paintings are less detailed, and a number of held cels (or frames) were used in the character animation. Although the film is more "cartoony" than previous Disney films, the animators brought elephants and other animals into the studio to study their movement. [9]

    Watercolor paint was used to render the backgrounds. Dumbo is one of the few Disney features to use the technique, which was also used for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and regularly employed for the various Disney cartoon shorts. The other Disney features used oil paint and gouache. 2002's Lilo & Stitch, which drew influences from Dumbo, also made use of watercolor backgrounds. [16]

    Disney animators' strike

    During a story meeting for Bambi on February 27, 1940, Disney observed that Dumbo was "an obvious straight cartoon" and that the animators that were assigned on Bambi were not appropriate for the look of Dumbo. Animators such as Art Babbitt and Ward Kimball were considered for the film. [14] For that reason, less experienced animators were brought on to animate the characters. Kimball recalled that Disney approached him in a parking lot about Dumbo and summarized the entire story in five minutes. "And listening to him tell that story," Kimball noted, "I could tell that the picture was going to work. Because everything sounded right. It had a great plot." In spite of this, Bill Tytla, who was one of the studio's top animators, animated the title character, but admitted that "it was in the nature of the film to go very fast and get it out in a hurry." To speed up production, Disney used photostats of story sketches instead of full layout artwork for the film, and had experienced animators to supervise the younger, less experienced animators assigned on the film. [17]

    Production on the film was interrupted on May 29, 1941 when much of the Disney animation staff went on strike. Kimball chose to not to strike, but his close friend Walt Kelly, who was an assistant animator helping him on the crow sequence, left the studios shortly after for reasons unrelated to the strike. [18]

    The clowns' requests to get a raise from their boss is a reference to the Disney animators that went on strike in 1941 (during the creation of the film), demanding higher pay from Walt himself. Moreover, the clowns, or at least their silhouettes, are caricatures of those animators. [19]

    Songs and performers

    All lyrics are written by Ned Washington all music is composed by Frank Churchill.

    No. TitlePerformer(s)Length
    1."Look Out for Mr. Stork"The Sportsmen
    2."Casey Junior"The Sportsmen
    3."Song of the Roustabouts"The King's Men
    4."Baby Mine"Betty Noyes
    5."The Clown Song (A.K.A. We're Gonna Hit the Big Boss for a Raise)"Billy Bletcher, Eddie Holden & Billy Sheets
    6."Pink Elephants on Parade"The Sportsmen
    7."When I See an Elephant Fly"Cliff Edwards & The Hall Johnson Choir
    8."When I See an Elephant Fly (Reprise)"Chorus

    On Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic, "Pink Elephants on Parade" is included on the green disc, "Baby Mine" is on the purple disc, and "When I See an Elephant Fly" is on the orange disc. On Disney's Greatest Hits, "Pink Elephants on Parade" is on the red disc.

    Dumbo was completed and delivered to Disney's distributor, RKO Radio Pictures, on September 11, 1941. [20] RKO initially balked at the film's 64-minute length and asked Disney to add another ten minutes. Disney refused, "No, that's as far as I can stretch it. You can stretch a thing so far and then it won't hold. The picture is right as it is. And another ten minutes is liable to cost five hundred thousand dollars. I can't afford it." [21] The film was re-released in theaters in 1949, 1959, 1972, and 1976. [22]

    Television broadcast

    Dumbo had its television premiere on September 14, 1955, [23] albeit severely edited, as an installment of the Disneyland television show. The film was shown unaltered on September 17, 1978, as part of a two-night salute to the program's 25th anniversary.

    Home media

    Along with Alice in Wonderland, Dumbo was the first of Disney's canon of animated films to be released on home video. The film was originally released on June 26, 1981 on VHS and Betamax, which was followed with a release on Laserdisc and CED in June 1982. [24] It was again re-released on VHS and Betamax as part of the Walt Disney Classics series on November 6, 1985. [25] The film was re-released on VHS and Laserdisc on July 12, 1991. [26] It was followed by another re-issue on VHS and Laserdisc on October 28, 1994 as a part of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection. [27] On October 23, 2001, a 60th Anniversary Edition was released in VHS and DVD formats. [28] [29] [30]

    In 2006, a "Big Top Edition" of the film was released on DVD. [31] [32] [33] A 70th Anniversary Edition of the film was released in the United States on September 20, 2011. [34] [35] [36] [37] The 70th Anniversary Edition was produced in two different packages: a 2-disc Blu-ray/DVD combo pack and a 1-disc DVD. [36] [38] The film was also released as a movie download. [36] All versions of the 70th Anniversary Edition contain deleted scenes and several bonus features, including "Taking Flight: The Making of Dumbo" and "The Magic of Dumbo: A Ride of Passage," while the 2-disc Blu-ray version additionally includes games, animated shorts, and several exclusive features. [36] [39] [40] The film was re-released on Blu-ray and DVD on April 26, 2016 to celebrate its 75th anniversary. [41]

    Box office

    Despite the advent of World War II, Dumbo was still the most financially successful Disney film of the 1940s. After its October 23 release, Dumbo proved to be a financial miracle compared to other Disney films. The simple film only cost $950,000 (equivalent to $16,720,000 in 2020) to produce, [2] half the cost of Snow White, less than a third of the cost of Pinocchio, and certainly less than the expensive Fantasia. Dumbo eventually grossed roughly more than $1.3 million (equivalent to $28,150,000 in 2020) during its original release. [3] The film returned a profit of $850,000. [21]

    Critical reception

    Variety wrote that Dumbo was "a pleasant little story, plenty of pathos mixed with the large doses of humor, a number of appealing new animal characters, lots of good music, and the usual Disney skillfulness in technique in drawing and use of color." [42] Cecelia Ager, writing in PM, called Dumbo "the nicest, kindest Disney yet. It has the most taste, beauty, compassion, skill, restraint. It marks a return to Disney first principles, the animal kingdom—that happy land where Disney workers turn into artists where their imagination, playfulness, ingenuity, daring flourish freest where, in short, they’re home." [43]

    Bosley Crowther, reviewing for The New York Times, wrote that the film was "the most genial, the most endearing, the most completely precious cartoon feature film ever to emerge from the magical brushes of Walt Disney's wonder-working artists". [44] Time wrote: "Like story and characters, Dumbo ' s coloring is soft and subdued, free from picture-postcard colors and confusing detail—a significant technical advance. But the charm of Dumbo is that it again brings to life that almost human animal kingdom where Walter Elias Disney is king of them all." [45] Harrison's Reports praised the film as "one of Walt Disney's most delightful offerings. Technically, it is excellent the color is exceptionally good. The story itself is pleasing it combines comedy with human appeal. The only fault is that occasionally the action slows down." [46]

    Additionally, Time had originally scheduled to run a story with an appearance cover for "Mammal of the Year" (a play on its annual "Man/Person of the Year" honor) on December 8, 1941. However, the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 of that year had postponed it, and the story was later published on December 29. [47] [48]

    Among retrospective reviews, film critic Leonard Maltin stated that Dumbo is his favorite of Disney's films and he described it as "one of Walt Disney's most charming animated films". [49] In 2011, Time named the film one of "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films". [50] On the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 98% based on 41 reviews with an average score of 8.38/10. The website's consensus reads "Dumbo packs plenty of story into its brief runtime, along with all the warm animation and wonderful music you'd expect from a Disney classic." [51] Metacritic has assigned a weighted score of 96 out of 100 for Dumbo based on 11 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim". [52]


    The film has been criticized by some for its handling of race. The Encyclopedia of Racism in American Films (2018) notes that "All of the circus laborers are African American, the only time that blacks are seen in any great number in the entire movie." [53] The lead crow, voiced by white actor Cliff Edwards in an imitation of Southern African American dialect, [54] was named "Jim Crow", after the pre-Civil-War minstrel character. The term had become a pejorative term for African Americans, and commonly referred to racial segregation laws, and the character's name was changed in the 1950s to "Dandy Crow" in attempt to avoid controversy. [55] [56] [57]

    Film scholar Richard Schickel, in his 1968 book The Disney Version, argued that the group of crows in the film were African American stereotypes. [58] They were voiced by African American actors and singers of the popular all-black "Hall Johnson Choir", including actors James Baskett (Song of the South) and Nick Stewart (The Amos 'n' Andy Show). Ward Kimball, the chief animator of the crows, used famous African-American dancers Freddie and Eugene Jackson as live-action reference for the characters. The personalities and mannerisms of the crows—specifically their fast-paced, back and forth dialogue—were inspired by the backchat found on the band records of Cab Calloway and Louis Armstrong. [12] Karina Longworth, exploring the history of Song of the South in her podcast You Must Remember This, discussed the basis of the crows in minstrel show culture, as part of a wider use of minstrel culture by Walt Disney. [59]

    In his 1973 book The Disney Films, film historian and critic Leonard Maltin argued that the crows "are undeniably black, but they are black characters, not black stereotypes. There is no denigrating dialogue, or Uncle Tomism in the scene, and if offense is to be taken in hearing blacks call each other 'brother', then the viewer is merely sensitive to accuracy." [60] Animation historian John Canemaker felt that the crows were amongst the very few characters in the film that sympathize and are empathetic with Dumbo's plight since being a marginalized ethnic group themselves, they can relate to Dumbo as a fellow outcast. He further added the crows "are the most intelligent, the happiest, the freest spirited characters in the whole film." [12] In 1980, film critic Michael Wilmington referred to the crows as "father figures", self-assured individuals who are "obvious parodies of proletarian blacks", but comments, "The crows are the snappiest, liveliest, most together characters in the film. They are tough and generous. They bow down to no one. And, of course, it is they who teach Dumbo to fly." [61]

    In 2017, Whoopi Goldberg expressed the desire for the crow characters to be more merchandised by Disney, "because those crows sing the song in Dumbo that everybody remembers." [62] In 2019, Floyd Norman, the first African-American animator hired at Walt Disney Productions during the 1950s, defended the crows in an article entitled Black Crows and Other PC Nonsense. [63] [64]

    The crows and Timothy Q. Mouse were not included in the 2019 live-action/CGI remake of Dumbo. [65] In 2019, it was reported that an edited version of the animated film without the crows would be featured on the forthcoming Disney+ service. [66] However, the film does appear on Disney+ uncensored, with an advisory in the synopsis warning "it may contain outdated cultural depictions." [67] [68] In 2021, the film was one of several that Disney limited to viewers 7 years and older on their service Disney+, citing similarity of the crows' depictions to "racist minstrel shows". [69]

    Awards and honors

    Dumbo won the 1941 Academy Award for Best Original Score, awarded to musical directors Frank Churchill and Oliver Wallace. Churchill and lyricist Ned Washington were also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Baby Mine" (the song that plays during Dumbo's visit to his mother's cell), but did not win for this category. [70] The film also won Best Animation Design at the 1947 Cannes Film Festival. [71]

    Year Ceremony Award Result [72]
    1941 Academy Awards Best Scoring of a Musical Picture Won
    Best Original Song
    (For the song "Baby Mine")
    1947 Cannes Film Festival Best Animation Design Won

    The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

    Dumbo's Circus

    Dumbo's Circus is a live-action/puppet television series for preschool audiences that aired on The Disney Channel in the 1980s. Unlike in the film, Dumbo spoke on the show. Each character would perform a special act, which ranged from dancing and singing to telling knock knock jokes.


    • Walt Disney's Dumbo: Happy to Help: (ISBN0-7364-1129-1) A picture book published by Random House Disney, written by Liane Onish and illustrated by Peter Emslie. It was published January 23, 2001. This paperback is for children aged 4–8. Twenty-four pages long, its 0.08 of an inch thick, and with cover dimensions of 7.88 x 7.88 inches.
    • Walt Disney's Dumbo Book of Opposites: ( 0-307-06149-3) A book published in August 1997 by Golden Books under the Golden Board Book brand. It was written by Alan Benjamin, illustrated by Peter Emslie, and edited by Heather Lowenberg. Twelve pages long and a quarter of an inch thick, this board edition book had dimensions of 7.25 x 6.00 inches.
    • Walt Disney's Dumbo the Circus Baby: ( 0-307-12397-9) A book published in September 1993 by Golden Press under the A Golden Sturdy Shape Book brand. Illustrated by Peter Emslie and written by Diane Muldrow, this book is meant for babies and preschoolers. Twelve pages long and half an inch thick, this book's cover size is 9.75 x 6.25 inches.

    Theme parks

    In June 2009, Disneyland introduced a flying Dumbo to their nighttime fireworks show, in which the elephant flies around Sleeping Beauty Castle while fireworks synched to music go off. [81]

    Casey Junior is the second float in the Main Street Electrical Parade and its versions. Casey, driven by Goofy, pulls a drum with the parade logo and Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse.

    Video games

    The Ringmaster appears as one of four villains in the 1999 PC game Disney's Villains' Revenge. In the game, the Disney Villains alter the happy endings from Jiminy Cricket's book in particular, the Ringmaster forces Dumbo to endlessly perform humiliating stunts in his circus. In the end, the Ringmaster is defeated when he is knocked unconscious by a well-aimed custard pie.

    Dumbo appears in the popular PlayStation 2 game Kingdom Hearts released in 2002 in the form of a summon that the player can call upon in battle for aid. Sora, the protagonist, flies on Dumbo while he splashes enemies with water from his trunk. [82] Dumbo reprises his role as a summon in the follow-up game Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories released in 2004 for the Game Boy Advance.

    Cancelled sequel

    In 2001, the "60th Anniversary Edition" DVD of Dumbo featured a sneak peek of the proposed sequel Dumbo II, including new character designs and storyboards. Robert C. Ramirez (Joseph: King of Dreams) was to direct the sequel, in which Dumbo and his circus friends navigated a large city after being left behind by their traveling circus. Dumbo II also sought to explain what happened to Dumbo's father, Mr. Jumbo. Dumbo's circus friends included the chaotic twin bears Claude and Lolly, the curious zebra Dot, the older, independent hippo Godfry, and the adventurous ostrich Penny. The animals were metaphors for the different stages of childhood. [83] Dumbo II was supposed to be set on the day immediately following the end of the first Dumbo movie. [84] John Lasseter cancelled Dumbo II, [83] soon after being named Chief Creative Officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios in 2006. [85]

    Live-action adaptation

    On July 8, 2014, Walt Disney Pictures announced that a live-action adaptation of Dumbo was in development. In the same announcement, Ehren Kruger was confirmed as the screenwriter, as well as co-producer with Justin Springer. [86] On March 10, 2015, Tim Burton was announced as the director. [87] [88] On January 11, 2017, it was reported that Will Smith was in talks to star in the remake as the father of some children who befriend Dumbo. [89] That same day, it was revealed that Tom Hanks had reportedly been offered to play the film's villain. [90] The following month, it was announced that Smith would not be starring in the film. [91] Smith had apparently passed on the project due to a disagreement over salary and scheduling as well as to star in Bad Boys for Life, [92] however, went on to play the role of the Genie in the 2019 live-action remake of Aladdin. In March 2017, it was reported that Eva Green was in talks to play a trapeze artist. [93] Following this announcement, Danny DeVito was cast as a ringleader named Medici. [94] Two weeks later, it was reported that Colin Farrell had entered negotiations to play the role of Holt, which was originally offered to Will Smith. [95] On April 4, 2017, Michael Keaton, Burton's former frequent collaborator, entered talks to star as the villain. [96] Keaton confirmed his involvement with the film on June 26, 2017. [97] Filming took place at Cardington Studios in Bedfordshire, England. [98] On July 15, 2017, Disney announced the casting for all of the principal roles and that the film would be released on March 29, 2019. [99] DeObia Oparei, Joseph Gatt and Alan Arkin also play new characters created for the film. [100] [101] [102]

    This Day in Black History: Oct. 23, 1947

    In the 1940s, African-Americans, or coloreds, as they were then known, were repeatedly victims of myriad kinds of racial discrimination, from senseless lynchings to everyday indignities such as inadequate housing, employment, educational and voting opportunities.

    On Oct. 23, 1947, the NAACP, led by W.E.B. DuBois, sent a petition to the United Nations titled "An Appeal to the World," to call attention to rampant acts of racial injustice against people of color.

    "We appeal to the world to witness that this attitude of America is far more dangerous to mankind than the Atom bomb and far, far more clamorous for attention than disarmament or treaty," the document stated.

    It also noted that not only were American Negros at risk but also people of African decent visiting the U.S.

    “Most people of the world are more or less colored in skin their presence at the meetings of the United Nations as participants and as visitors, renders them always liable to insult and to discrimination because they may be mistaken for Americans of Negro descent," the document stated.

    Unfortunately, the U.N. rejected the appeal.

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    ‘Boogaloo Boi’ charged in fire of Minneapolis police precinct during George Floyd protest

    A rightwing extremist boasted of driving from Texas to Minneapolis to help set fire to a police precinct during the George Floyd protests, federal prosecutors said.

    US attorney Erica MacDonald said on Friday that she had charged Ivan Harrison Hunter, a 26-year-old Texas resident, with traveling across state lines to participate in a riot. The charges are the latest example of far-right extremists attempting to use violence to escalate national protests against police brutality into an uprising against the government, and even full civil war.

    The case also reveals the extent of the coordination between violent members of the nascent far-right “Boogaloo Bois” movement operating in different cities across the country.

    According to the criminal complaint against Hunter, on 26 May, as intense protests broke out in Minneapolis over the killing of George Floyd by a city police officer, a “Boogaloo Boi” based in Minnesota posted a public Facebook message: “I need a headcount.”

    Hunter, a resident of Boerne, Texas, which is roughly 1,200 miles away, responded: “72 hours out.”

    Another “Boogaloo Boi”, based in North Carolina, posted a public message the same day: “Lock and load boys,” he wrote, adding, “the national network is going off.”

    “Boogaloo” has long been used on online message boards as an ironic term for a second civil war, one that might be sparked by any government attempts to confiscate Americans’ guns. But in 2019 and early 2020, the memes about a coming “boogaloo” began to coalesce into an anti-government, pro-gun movement, with armed “Boog bois” showing up at protests, some wearing the “Boogaloo” uniform of a bright Hawaiian shirt paired with a military-style rifle.

    In the late winter and early spring of 2020, researchers noted a growing number of “Boogaloo” groups on Facebook, many of them posting explicitly about military tactics and killing government officials, as well as the proliferation of “Boogaloo”-themed merchandise for sale, such as flags, patches, and Hawaiian-print gun accessories.

    Prosecutors say that Hunter would later describe himself to Austin police officers as “the leader of the Boogaloo Bois in south Texas”.

    By 28 May, during a night of the most intense unrest and destruction in the city, Hunter was in Minneapolis, just as the 3rd precinct police station, known locally as a “playground for renegade cops”, was being set on fire.

    Video shot that night shows a person later identified as Hunter firing 13 rounds from a semiautomatic assault-style rifle on the 3rd precinct police station while people believed to be looters were inside. He then high-fived another person and shouted, “Justice for Floyd!” according to the complaint.

    Later, he privately messaged Steven Carrillo, another alleged “Boogaloo Boi” in California, urging him to “go for police buildings”, according to the federal criminal complaint.

    “I did better, lol,” Carrillo allegedly replied.

    Hours before Carrillo sent that message, according to the complaint, federal prosecutors say Carrillo had driven to Oakland with an accomplice, and, as protesters were demonstrating blocks away, shot two officers guarding a federal courthouse in downtown Oakland, killing one, David Patrick Underwood.

    Carrillo was later charged with killing another law enforcement officer, a Santa Cruz sheriff’s deputy, in an ambush attack in June.

    According to the complaint, Hunter would later post multiple messages on Facebook bragging of his actions in Minneapolis on the night of 28 May and morning of 29 May, writing, “I set fire to that precinct with the Black community,” and, “My mom would call the FBI if she knew.”

    “I’ve burned police stations with Black Panthers in Minneapolis,” he claimed in one message, and in another, “The BLM protesters in Minneapolis loved me.”

    Police in Austin, Texas, stopped a pickup truck, in which Hunter was a passenger, on 3 June for multiple traffic violations. Hunter had six loaded magazines for a semiautomatic rifle in a tactical vest he was wearing. Officers also found multiple firearms in the truck.

    Several days after the stop, federal agents learned of Hunter’s online affiliation with Carrillo. MacDonald said Hunter made his initial court appearance on Thursday in San Antonio, Texas. It is unclear if he has an attorney.

    Hunter is the third alleged “Boogaloo Boi” to be charged in connection with protests in Minneapolis. Across the country, the “Boogaloo” movement has been linked to more than two dozen arrests and at least five deaths this year, including the alleged plot to kidnap the Michigan governor, Gretchen Whitmer.

    Ex-Date Record Date Pay-Date Amount(1)
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    29-Jan-21 01-Feb-21 26-Feb-21 .5100
    30-Oct-20 02-Nov-20 25-Nov-20 .5100
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    01-Nov-19 04-Nov-19 22-Nov-19 .5100
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    27-Apr-17 01-May-17 26-May-17 .1600
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    28-Apr-16 02-May-16 27-May-16 .0500
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    29-Oct-15 02-Nov-15 25-Nov-15 .0500
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    07-May-15 11-May-15 22-May-15 .0500
    29-Jan-15 02-Feb-15 27-Feb-15 .0100
    30-Oct-14 03-Nov-14 26-Nov-14 .0100
    31-Jul-14 04-Aug-14 22-Aug-14 .0100
    01-May-14 05-May-14 23-May-14 .0100
    30-Jan-14 03-Feb-14 28-Feb-14 .0100
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    01-Aug-13 05-Aug-13 23-Aug-13 .0100
    02-May-13 06-May-13 24-May-13 .0100
    31-Jan-13 04-Feb-13 22-Feb-13 .0100
    01-Nov-12 05-Nov-12 21-Nov-12 .0100
    02-Aug-12 06-Aug-12 24-Aug-12 .0100
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    03-Nov-11 07-Nov-11 23-Nov-11 .0100
    28-Jul-11 01-Aug-11 26-Aug-11 .0100
    25-May-11 27-May-11 17-Jun-11 .0100
    29-Jan-09 02-Feb-09 27-Feb-09 .1000
    30-Oct-08 03-Nov-08 26-Nov-08 $1.6000
    31-Jul-08 04-Aug-08 22-Aug-08 $3.2000
    1-May-08 05-May-08 23-May-08 $3.2000
    31-Jan-08 04-Feb-08 22-Feb-08 $3.2000
    01-Nov-07 05-Nov-07 21-Nov-07 $5.4000
    02-Aug-07 06-Aug-07 24-Aug-07 $5.4000
    03-May-07 07-May-07 25-May-07 $5.4000
    01-Feb-07 05-Feb-07 23-Feb-07 $5.4000
    02-Nov-06 06-Nov-06 22-Nov-06 $4.9000
    03-Aug-06 07-Aug-06 25-Aug-06 $4.9000
    27-Apr-06 01-May-06 26-May-06 $4.9000
    02-Feb-06 06-Feb-06 24-Feb-06 $4.9000
    03-Nov-05 07-Nov-05 23-Nov-05 $4.4000
    28-Jul-05 01-Aug-05 26-Aug-05 $4.4000
    28-Apr-05 02-May-05 27-May-05 $4.4000
    03-Feb-05 07-Feb-05 25-Feb-05 $4.4000
    28-Oct-04 01-Nov-04 24-Nov-04 $4.0000
    29-Jul-04 02-Aug-04 27-Aug-04 $4.0000
    29-Apr-04 03-May-04 28-May-04 $4.0000
    29-Jan-04 02-Feb-04 27-Feb-04 $4.0000
    30-Oct-03 03-Nov-03 26-Nov-03 $3.5000
    31-Jul-03 04-Aug-03 22-Aug-03 $3.5000
    01-May-03 05-May-03 23-May-03 $2.0000
    30-Jan-03 03-Feb-03 28-Feb-03 $2.0000
    31-Oct-02 04-Nov-02 22-Nov-02 $1.8000
    21-Aug-02 09-Aug-02 20-Aug-02 .887656
    shares of TAP.B (2)
    21-Aug-02 09-Aug-02 20-Aug-02 .432043
    shares of TAP.A (2)
    01-Aug-02 05-Aug-02 23-Aug-02 $1.8000
    02-May-02 06-May-02 24-May-02 $1.8000
    31-Jan-02 04-Feb-02 22-Feb-02 $1.6000
    01-Nov-01 05-Nov-01 21-Nov-01 $1.6000
    02-Aug-01 06-Aug-01 24-Aug-01 $1.6000
    03-May-01 07-May-01 25-May-01 $1.4000
    01-Feb-01 05-Feb-01 23-Feb-01 $1.4000
    02-Nov-00 06-Nov-00 22-Nov-00 $1.4000
    03-Aug-00 07-Aug-00 25-Aug-00 $1.4000
    27-Apr-00 01-May-00 26-May-00 $1.2000
    03-Feb-00 07-Feb-00 25-Feb-00 $1.2000
    28-Oct-99 01-Nov-99 24-Nov-99 $1.0500
    29-Jul-99 02-Aug-99 27-Aug-99 $1.0500
    29-Apr-99 03-May-99 28-May-99 $1.0500
    28-Jan-99 01-Feb-99 26-Feb-99 .9000
    29-Oct-98 02-Nov-98 25-Nov-98 .9000
    30-Jul-98 03-Aug-98 28-Aug-98 .6250
    30-Apr-98 04-May-98 22-May-98 .6250
    05-Feb-98 09-Feb-98 27-Feb-98 .6250
    30-Oct-97 03-Nov-97 26-Nov-97 .5000
    31-Jul-97 04-Aug-97 22-Aug-97 .5000
    01-May-97 05-May-97 23-May-97 .5000
    30-Jan-97 03-Feb-97 21-Feb-97 .5000
    31-Oct-96 04-Nov-96 22-Nov-96 .3750
    01-Aug-96 05-Aug-96 23-Aug-96 .3750
    02-May-96 06-May-96 24-May-96 .3750
    01-Feb-96 05-Feb-96 23-Feb-96 .3750
    02-Nov-95 06-Nov-95 22-Nov-95 .3330
    03-Aug-95 07-Aug-95 25-Aug-95 .3330
    02-May-95 08-May-95 26-May-95 .3330
    31-Jan-95 06-Feb-95 24-Feb-95 .3330
    01-Nov-94 07-Nov-94 23-Nov-94 .2500
    02-Aug-94 08-Aug-94 26-Aug-94 .2500
    03-May-94 09-May-94 27-May-94 .2500
    01-Feb-94 07-Feb-94 25-Feb-94 .2080
    02-Nov-93 08-Nov-93 24-Nov-93 .2080
    03-Aug-93 09-Aug-93 27-Aug-93 .2080
    04-May-93 10-May-93 28-May-93 .2000
    02-Feb-93 08-Feb-93 26-Feb-93 .2000
    03-Nov-92 09-Nov-92 25-Nov-92 .1670
    28-Jul-92 03-Aug-92 21-Aug-92 .1670
    28-Apr-92 04-May-92 22-May-92 .1670
    28-Jan-92 03-Feb-92 25-Feb-92 .1040
    29-Oct-91 04-Nov-91 22-Nov-91 .1040
    30-Jul-91 05-Aug-91 23-Aug-91 .1040
    30-Apr-91 06-May-91 24-May-91 .0830
    29-Jan-91 04-Feb-91 25-Feb-91 .0830
    30-Oct-90 05-Nov-90 23-Nov-90 .0830
    31-Jul-90 06-Aug-90 24-Aug-90 .0830
    01-May-90 07-May-90 25-May-90 .0670
    30-Jan-90 05-Feb-90 23-Feb-90 .0670
    31-Oct-89 06-Nov-89 24-Nov-89 .0670
    01-Aug-89 07-Aug-89 25-Aug-89 .0580
    02-May-89 08-May-89 25-May-89 .0580
    31-Jan-89 06-Feb-89 24-Feb-89 .0580
    31-Oct-88 04-Nov-88 25-Nov-88 .0580
    26-Aug-88 01-Sep-88 21-Sep-88 .0580
    25-May-88 31-May-88 17-Jun-88 .0580
    24-Feb-88 01-Mar-88 25-Mar-88 .0500
    10-Dec-87 06-Dec-87 30-Dec-87 .0500
    01-Sep-87 07-Sep-87 22-Sep-87 .0500
    27-May-87 02-Jun-87 23-Jun-87 .0500
    26-Feb-87 04-Mar-87 24-Mar-87 .0500
    28-Nov-86 02-Dec-86 23-Dec-86 .0500

    (1)Amounts have been adjusted for stock splits
    (2)The TAP distribution was made out of paid in capital of Citigroup

    Medieval Sourcebook: Gregory VII: Dictatus Papae 1090

    The Dictatus Papae was included in Pope's register in the year 1075. Some argue that it was written by Pope Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085) himself, others argues that it had a much later different origin. In 1087 Cardinal Deusdedit published a collection of the laws of the Church which he drew from any sources. The Dictatus agrees so clearly and closely with this collection that some have argued the Dictatus must have been based on it and so must be of a later date of compilation than 1087. There is little doubt that the principals below do express the pope's principals.

    The Dictates of the Pope

    1. That the Roman church was founded by God alone.
    2. That the Roman pontiff alone can with right be called universal.
    3. That he alone can depose or reinstate bishops.
    4. That, in a council his legate, even if a lower grade, is above all bishops, and can pass sentence of deposition against them.
    5. That the pope may depose the absent.
    6. That, among other things, we ought not to remain in the same house with those excommunicated by him.
    7. That for him alone is it lawful, according to the needs of the time, to make new laws, to assemble together new congregations, to make an abbey of a canonry and, on the other hand, to divide a rich bishopric and unite the poor ones.
    8. That he alone may use the imperial insignia.
    9. That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
    10. That his name alone shall be spoken in the churches.
    11. That this is the only name in the world.
    12. That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
    13. That he may be permitted to transfer bishops if need be.
    14. That he has power to ordain a clerk of any church he may wish.
    15. That he who is ordained by him may preside over another church, but may not hold a subordinate position and that such a one may not receive a higher grade from any bishop.
    16. That no synod shall be called a general one without his order.
    17. That no chapter and no book shall be considered canonical without his authority.
    18. That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it.
    19. That he himself may be judged by no one.
    20. That no one shall dare to condemn one who appeals to the apostolic chair.
    21. That to the latter should be referred the more important cases of every church.
    22. That the Roman church has never erred nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
    23. That the Roman pontiff, if he have been canonically ordained, is undoubtedly made a saint by the merits of St. Peter St. Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, bearing witness, and many holy fathers agreeing with him. As is contained in the decrees of St. Symmachus the pope.
    24. That, by his command and consent, it may be lawful for subordinates to bring accusations.
    25. That he may depose and reinstate bishops without assembling a synod.
    26. That he who is not at peace with the Roman church shall not be considered catholic.
    27. That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.

    translated in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 366-367

    This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

    Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

    (c)Paul Halsall Jan 1996
    [email protected]

    The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

    © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]

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