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Maps for session on The Normans - History
Voyages in History
When did what vessel arrive with whom onboard and where did it sink if it didn't?
The Normans, or Norsemen, or Northmen, were Vikings who settled in northern France and founded Normandy.
911. Leading Viking of this expedition was Rollo, also called Rolf or Rollon.
In 1066 and headed by William , they launched the Norman Conquest and invaded Britain.
Another group of Normans, inspired by their fellow man Robert Guiscard, also called Robert de Hauteville, went down to southern Italy and Sicily.
MDMA-Assisted Therapy Study Protocols
MAPS' highest priority project is sponsoring Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug development research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). FDA has designated MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD a Breakthrough Therapy, and has come to agreement with MAPS on Phase 3 protocol designs after a rigorous Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) process. MAPS' goal is to develop MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD into an FDA-approved prescription treatment. The Phase 3 trials are expected to be complete in 2022, meaning that FDA could approve the treatment as soon as 2023. MAPS is also initiating Phase 2 trials in Europe.
We are studying whether MDMA-assisted therapy can help heal the psychological and emotional damage caused by sexual assault, war, violent crime, and other traumas. We also sponsored completed studies of MDMA-assisted therapy for autistic adults with social anxiety, and MDMA-assisted therapy for anxiety related to life-threatening illnesses.
FDA Agrees to Expanded Access Program for MDMA-Assisted Therapy for PTSD
On December 20, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agreed to MAPS’ application for an expanded access program for MDMA-assisted therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of the expanded access program is to allow early access to potentially beneficial investigational therapies for people facing a serious or life-threatening condition for whom currently available treatments have not worked, and who are unable to participate in Phase 3 clinical trials. The program will enroll 50 PTSD patients at up to 10 sites in the U.S. Site locations will be announced in the next few months.
Expanded access is a U.S. FDA program that allows the use of an investigational drug under a Treatment Protocol. The program is designed to address urgent and life-threatening conditions in patients who do not currently have promising treatment options. Only sites within the U.S. and U.S. territories are eligible to participate in the U.S. FDA's expanded access program. You can learn more about expanded access on the FDA’s website.
New sites meeting the requirements listed below may seek approval to participate in MAPS PBC’s multi-center expanded access protocol under an FDA Treatment IND, which would allow them to administer open-label MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD in line with the single approved protocol. Qualified applicants will have a team of therapy providers, a physician, and a facility suitable to conduct MDMA-assisted therapy per Schedule I regulations with approval by regulatory agencies and under supervision of MAPS PBC.
We have a online training application for eligible expanded access sites and providers.
MAPS is undertaking a plan to make MDMA-assisted therapy into a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prescription treatment by 2023. For-profit pharmaceutical companies are not interested in developing MDMA into a medicine because the patent for MDMA has expired. The idea of using MDMA to assist therapy of any kind for any specific clinical indication has long been in the public domain.
In MDMA-assisted therapy, MDMA is only administered a few times, unlike most medications for mental illnesses which are often taken daily for years, and sometimes forever.
MDMA is not the same as "Ecstasy" or "molly." Substances sold on the street under these names may contain MDMA, but frequently also contain unknown and/or dangerous adulterants. In laboratory studies, pure MDMA has been proven sufficiently safe for human consumption when taken a limited number of times in moderate doses.
Why It’s Called User-Story Mapping
If you’re new to the concept of user stories, they are informal, natural language descriptions of features, UI elements, or tasks, written from the perspective of the user. They’re intended to get the team talking to each other about solutions in the context of end users and the benefit they’ll receive. These conversations help everyone arrive at shared understanding much faster than reading a requirements document. User stories can be written at a high level to describe a full product or feature and what it enables users to do or at low level, to outline an interface element and its value. For example:
- High-level user story: “As a checking account holder, I want to deposit a check from my mobile device, so that I don’t have to waste time going to the bank.”
- Low-level user story: “As a checking account holder, I want to save my credentials, so that I don’t have to input my username and password each time I log in.
Agile teams commonly rely on small, high-value user stories to plan and estimate what to work on each sprint. In the user-story map, activities, steps, and details are captured as short, succinct verb phrases representing user actions. These serve as the basis for the first half of the user-story format, describing what the user needs or wants to do. The story can then be elaborated upon to include the key benefit to complete the second half of the narrative. Thus, the mapping method is called user-story mapping because it can be used to evolve the verb phrases captured on the map into fully fleshed-out user stories that can be discussed further, eventually paired with acceptance criteria, and added to the product backlog for prioritization and estimation.
Life in England at the Time of the Norman Conquest
The Norman Conquest brought huge changes for the ruling and landowning classes of medieval England. But for poorer people, there were fewer changes. Although England in 1066 had a number of sizeable settlements, the majority of people lived in rural areas, in houses built of straw, wood or reeds. It wasn’t until the late twelfth century that stone foundations were used in the construction of ordinary houses.
Village Life in Norman England
In the village, life was based around the cycle of the year, with harvesting and sowing the crops important rituals for ensuring food for the whole community. Inventory records of peasants in Norman England show that most families had few possessions, such as the family table and stools, beds and a chest in which to store goods such as winter blankets. Animals were valuable possessions to peasant households, and often slept in the same house as the family.
The village’s land was typically divided into open fields, within which a crop rotation scheme operated. One field was sown with winter crops, a second with spring crops and the third left to recover before re-sowing the following year. Some fields were held by tenants, some by the manorial lord and others by the village rector. At busy periods such as harvest, many communities would work together, for example, to bring in the crops.
The Town in Norman England
At the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, towns and cities such as York, London, Winchester and Southampton were already large and prosperous trading centres. The Norman Conquest did nothing to change this, and in fact, in the 200 years following the Conquest, the number of towns more than doubled. The Normans founded abbeys around which towns became established. These were trading centres, with markets and specialized goods, such as salt in Droitwich and cloth in Norwich. In the Norman towns, houses and business premises were often crowded together, with buildings usually constructed from timber. By the mid twelfth century, the medieval town became more organized as individual businessmen formed trade guilds, meaning that trade became more regulated and businesses became more specialized.
This article provides guidance on a specific set of activities however, there are many ways to run a journey-mapping workshop. The overall structure and activities are a starting place, created for one specific context. Use this as a starting place and adapt it based on your needs, scope, and limitations.
Learn more in our full-day course on Journey Mapping to Understand Customer Needs at the Virtual UX Conference.
About the Author
Kate Kaplan is Insights Architect at Nielsen Norman Group. She specializes in the application of human-centered design and research practices to enterprise UX challenges.
Prior to joining NN/g, Kate was VP of Strategy at the digital marketing agency Centerline Digital, where she led a cross-disciplinary team of UX designers, content strategists and digital marketers in solving complex problems for high-technology B2B organizations, such as IBM, GE and National Instruments.
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What happened to the Normans?
In 1066, Saxon England was rocked by the death of Harold II and his army by the invading Norman forces at the Battle of Hastings. Descendants from both Norse Vikings and Frankish tribes, the Normans got their name from their home territory in Normandy in Northern France. Their peak of expansion was in and around 1130 when their lands spread over England, Southern Italy, Northern Africa and many Mediterranean outposts. Despite being experts in trade and spreading their culture, the Normans always considered their lands in Normandy as their true home, but by the late-12th century, they had become too widespread and had begun to lose a sense of identity. By the time of the French campaigns in Normandy in 1202, the kingdoms of England and France had become completely different entities. The Anglo-French War (1202-1214) watered down the Norman influence as English Normans became English and French Normans became French. Now, no-one was just ‘Norman’. As its people and settlements were assumed into these two larger kingdoms, the idea of a Norman civilisation disappeared. Although no longer a kingdom itself, the culture and language of the Normans can still be seen in Northern France to this day.
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Maps for session on The Normans - History
Saxons and other tribes start to arrive in Britain from 550 AD. This maps shows the areas in which they settle.
The seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Several modern counties still use their Saxon names.
In 1065 the areas of England had been merged into larger states.
Viking invasions started in around 790 AD. In 793 the monastery at Lindisfarne was attacked. Churches were an easy target for the vikings as they were built in remote locations and were poorly protected.
The Norman Invasion & Conquest
In late 1066 several key battles took place in England. See where these key battles took place.
See the route William the Conqueror took from Normandy through the south of England before becoming King.
See how much land was under the possession of William the Conqueror in 1087 AD.
The invasion of France by Edward III in 1346 AD.
Henry V's first campaign in France in 1415
This map show the routes from Vézelay to Messina taken by Philip Augustus and Richard I.
This map show the routes from Messina to Acre taken by Philip Augustus and Richard I.
Click on the castle icons above to see the locations of major castles, cathedral and abbeys on an interactive map.
The battles of the War of the Roses took place between 1455 and 1487. The war was fought between supporters of several descendants of Edward III, the King of England from 1327 to 1377.
Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
Explore the bailey and wooden tower keep of a Norman motte and bailey castle
Explore all four floors of a Norman square keep similar to Dover Castle, built in the twelfth century.
Explore a siege landscape and learn about the siege engines used to destroy a castle.
Maps for session on The Normans - History
Maps Chronological: 501-1200
The maps in this collection are indexed first in chronological order and then alphabetically.
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For the purposes of this site, this timeline is very compressed and only highlights some of the more important dates in the history of the Normans. It is not complete - as people learn more about the past, old events which may have seemed insignificant take on a new meaning. If you have any suggestions for an important event then send an email to Etrusia with the details and we will see about adding it to our list.
911 The Frankish King Charles the Simple grants the Viking Rollo land in what is now northern France. This land becomes known as "Normandy" and the people who live there are known as the "Normans." 1017 The Italians request the Normans send an army to help them defend their land. On arrival the Normans like the country and invade it themselves. 1047 Nineteen year old, William The Bastard wins his first major engagement at the battle of Val Es Dunes on the Norman / Frankish border. 1066 Duke Willam of Normandy (obviously didnt like his old nickname) invades England putting an end to the 500 or so years of Saxon rule. 1084 Germans attack Rome, the Norman armies drive back the Germans and save the Pope only to raid Rome themselves. 1085 King William I of England orders the Domesday Book be compiled. 1099 Norman led crusaders, following Pope Urban II's orders, capture Jerusalem and massacre the occupants. 1135 King Henry I's nephew Stephen goes to war with the Empress Matilda and brings nearly two decades of anarchy to the Norman lands. 1204 The French King Phillip II invades and conquers Normandy. Most of the Normans in England decide to stay and become English. Most of the Normans in France become French. The Normans themselves effectively cease to exist.
The Norman Website.
This part of the Etrusia web family is dedicated to looking at the period of British history when the Saxons and Danes were supplanted by another invader - the Normans. < Home Page >.