In November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia and quickly began efforts to withdraw from participation in World War I. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed in March of the following year. German soldiers fighting in the East were subsequently transferred to the Western Front and contributed to the initially successful spring offensive in 1918.
Slaves, Wealth and Fear: An Episode from Late Mamluk-Era EgyptBy Nur Sobers KhanOriens, Vol. 37 (2009)Introduction: In the spring of 1446 a group of African slaves gathered in the fields of Giza, outside of Cairo, and set up their own imitation Mamluk court. These slaves appointed their own sultan, as well as governors, wazīrs, and other court officials.
The Western Catholic Church’s influence on marriage and family structures during the Middle Ages shaped the cultural evolution of the beliefs and behaviors now common among Western Europeans and their cultural descendants, researchers report.According to an article published earlier this month in the journal Science, Western Europe developed greater individualism, lower conformity and increased trust of strangers which can be traced in part to the Medieval Western Church’s policies.
Curricula and educational process in Mamluk MadrasasBy Hatim MahamidEducation Research Journal, Vol. 1:7 (2011)Abstract: This study examined and discussed about the process of education in Egypt and Syria during the Mamluk Era (1250 – 1517). It presented the array of learning activities that affected the lives of both the students and teachers; the learning methods and materials utilised; the curricula; the schedules of study days and holidays, etc.